The great extent of Eurasia from north to south determines the formation over its territory of all types of air masses of arctic, temperate, tropical, equatorial. Therefore, the continent is located in all climatic zones of the northern hemisphere. The considerable length of the continent from west to east predetermines the difference in the climate within the same climatic zone. In particular, this is noticeable in the temperate and subtropical zones, where separate climatic regions differ from the coast of the oceans to the interior of the continent.
Islands and a narrow coastal strip in the north of the continent are in the arctic climatic zone. Here, the cold and dry arctic air masses dominate the whole year. It is the climate of the arctic deserts, where the polar night is replaced
The subarctic climate belt covers the island of Iceland and a narrow part of the extreme north of the continent from the Scandinavian to the Chukchi Peninsula. In winter, arctic air masses prevail here, in summer air masses from temperate sprats arrive. Therefore, compared to the Arctic belt, summer is much warmer here: in the north it is about +5 ° С. in the south – up to +15 ° С. Strong winds also prevail. Precipitation prevails in the summer, with the arrival of moderate air masses. They drop a little -200-400 mm. But because of the low temperatures of the air moisture evaporates a little, which leads to the emergence of marshes.
A moderate climatic zone encompasses the largest territory in comparison with other belts. The climate of Europe is significantly influenced by air masses from the Atlantic Ocean, which is due to the western transfer and the presence in the ocean of warm North Atlantic currents.
Under the influence of moist air masses from the Atlantic in Western Europe, the maritime climate is formed. The average January temperatures here exceed 0 ° C, in July – about +16 °
With the advance to the east, the influence of the ocean weakens, the maritime climate turns into a moderately continental climate with a colder winter and a warmer summer. The annual amount of precipitation decreases to 900-500 mm. Over the Ural Mountains in the West Siberian Plain, the climate becomes continental. In winter, frosts reach 20 ° C. and in summer the temperature is +22 ° С. Precipitation is less than 400 mm per year. In the central regions of Asia, the climate is sharply continental with large amplitude fluctuations in temperatures in summer and winter, which exceed 50 ° C, and in some places even 100 ° C. Precipitation is low.
The climate of the temperate belt in the Far East is monsoon. In the summer, the Pacific monsoon brings moist sea air, and therefore significant precipitation – over 800 mm. The average July temperature is + 18 ° C. In winter, cold air masses from Eastern Siberia come here, and therefore the winter is cold and snowless. On the Japanese islands, winter is much warmer because of the influence of the warm current of Kuroshio.
The subtropical climatic belt crosses Eurasia from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. Summer in this belt is dominated by dry and hot tropical air, and in winter – moist and moderately cool. In the south of Europe and the peninsula of Asia Minor, the Mediterranean climate is formed. The summer is dry and sultry, the winters are warm and wetter. The annual amount of precipitation usually does not exceed 400 mm. In the central parts of the subtropical belt, the climate is of continental type with significant annual amplitudes of temperature fluctuations and insignificant precipitation. In the east, as in the temperate zone, the climate is monsoon.
In the tropical belt of Eurasia there is only a continental region. It extends only to the western part of the Azin – Arabian Peninsula. Under the influence of the dry North-Eastern trade wind blowing from Central Asia, there is little precipitation – up to 200 mm per year. There are areas where they do not happen for years. There is no precipitation even on the coast of the Arabian Sea because of the cold Somali current. In summer, the air warms up to +50 ° C, in winter the thermometer does not drop below +20 ° C. Characteristic of significant daily fluctuations in temperature.
The subequatorial belt covers the Hindustan Peninsula and Indochina, as well as the Philippine Islands. The territory is in summer under the influence of moist and warm equatorial air masses, in winter – dry and hot tropical.
Therefore, warm weather reigns throughout the year, and winter differs from summer only in the amount of precipitation. Most of the precipitation falls in the summer. For half a year there are up to 2000 mm of precipitation, and in some places and more. Waves bring powerful monsoons from the Indian and Pacific oceans. The equatorial ischiatic belt encompasses the Great Sunda Islands. Throughout the year, equatorial air masses dominate here. High air temperatures and a lot of rainfall resemble the eternal summer, which has permanently settled in this area.