Khlebnikov Velimir (Victor Vladimirovich, 1885 – 1922), the poet.
He was born on October 28 (November 9) in the village of Malye Derbety (Khanska Stake) of the Astrakhan Province to a natural scientist, ornithologist, one of the organizers of the Astrakhan Reserve. In 1898 the family moved to Kazan, and Khlebnikov continued his studies at the gymnasium; his predilections are determined: ornithology, Russian literature, mathematics. The cultural atmosphere of the family contributed to the rapid intellectual development of the future poet, the versatility of his interests: foreign languages, drawing, literature. In the last grades of the grammar school he begins to write poetry.
In 1903 he entered the Physics and Mathematics Department of Kazan University, first to the mathematical department, then transferred to the natural. The decisive moment was the move to St. Petersburg in 1908. Entering St. Petersburg University for a natural department, and then switching to the historical and philological, he soon finally parted with the university. Fate was determined – literature and philosophical and mathematical research.
Khlebnikov drew attention to himself and aroused his interest by an original personality, struck by his worldview and his rare independent views. He gets acquainted with the circle of metropolitan modern poets (including Gumilev and Kuzmin, whom he calls “his teacher”), visits Vyach, the famous “bathhouse”
His life was filled with moving from town to town; he had no home, service, and money. In Kharkov and Rostov, in Baku and Moscow, he lived with friends, acquaintances and just casual people. But everywhere he obsessively works, writes, reflects and explores. Scientist and science fiction writer, poet and publicist, he is completely absorbed in creative work. Written poems “Rural Enchantment”, “Scream Forest”, etc., the play “The Mistake of Death.” The books “Rav, Gloves, 1908 – 1914”, “Creations” (Volume 1) are published. In 1916, together with N. Aseev, he issued a declaration “Pipe Martians”, in which the Khlebnikov division of mankind into “inventors” and “acquirers” was formulated. The main heroes of his poetry were Time and the Word, precisely through the Time fixed by the Word and transformed into a spatial fragment, it was for him a philosophical unity of “space-time.” O. Mandelshtam wrote: “Khlebnikov fumbles with words like a mole, meanwhile he dug in the ground strokes for the future for a whole century…”
In 1920 he lived in Kharkov, wrote a lot: “The war in a mousetrap,” “Ladomir,” “Three Sisters,” “Scratching Through the Sky,” and others. In the city theater of Kharkov there is a “clownish” election of Khlebnikov “the Chairman of the Globe” Yesenin and Mariengof.
In 1921 he came to Pyatigorsk, where he worked in Terek ROSTA as a night watchman. The newspaper published his poems “Night Before the Soviets”, “Washerwoman”, “Present”, “Night search”. At the end of 1921, after a long wanderings, the seriously ill patients returned to Moscow in the hope of publishing their works. Having recovered a little, he meets Mayakovsky, Kamensky and other poets. In friendly communication he puts in order his rough notes and completes a number of poems and poems brought to him, among them “
In May 1922, together with his friend, the artist P. Miturich, he went to the village of Santalovo, Novgorod Province. There he is seriously ill. On June 28, “the most honest knight of poetry,” as Mayakovsky called it, died.
In 1960, the poet’s ashes were transported to Moscow and buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery.
A short biography from the book: Russian writers and poets. A short biographical dictionary. Moscow, 2000.