Samuel Butler is an English author.
He was the son and grandson of eminent priests. In 1859, after giving up his spiritual life, he went to New Zealand, where he founded a farm and began to raise sheep, after a few years earning a small fortune on it.
He returned to England in 1864 and devoted himself to various hobbies, including painting, music, biology and literature. In addition, some of his paintings were shown at the Royal Academy, he created several works in collaboration with Henry Festings Jones, among them “Handelian Narcissus: A Dramatic Cantata”.
His work “Edgin” appeared in 1872. In this work, Butler mocks English social and economic injustices by describing a country in which manners and laws contradict one another. This work in the biography of Samuel Butler brings the author literary fame. The work “Return to Edgin” was published in 1901.
Butler rejects Darwin’s theory of evolution, finding it too mechanistic. Then Samuel elaborates his theory in the works “Evolution of the Old and New,” “Unconscious Memory,” “Luck or Cunning as the Main Way of Organic Change.”
In his only novel, the autobiographical work “The Way of All Flesh”, he challenges the Victorian model of life, in particular the church environment in which he was brought up.
Brilliantly paradoxical and witty work “The Way of All Flesh” takes place among the greatest English novels. “Butler’s notebooks” were published in 1912.