(1622-1673 gg.) – French playwright, actor, theatrical figure.
Moliere was born in the family of the royal furniture and furniture maker J. Poklen, who managed to place his son in Clermont College. Young Poklen received a broad education, showing a special inclination towards ancient literature and philosophy. After graduating from college (1639), the young man decided to devote himself to the theater. In 1643, taking the pseudonym Moliere, he organized the “Brilliant Theater”. But this theater did not have success, and from 1646 to 1658 Moliere and his comrades worked in the provinces.
In 1658, his company was left in Paris at the request of the king. It was in the Paris period of his life that Moliere created his remarkable comedies (more than thirty), in which he mocked all sorts of vices: hypocrisy, hypocrisy, suspicion, dullness, frivolity, arrogance, aristocratic pride and greed of the bourgeois. All this and much more has become the subject of criticism in the merciless, sometimes kind, sometimes bitter, but always deep in thought, human in essence and virtuosic in the form of Moliere’s comedy. “Don Juan” (1665), “Misanthrope” (1666), “Stingy” (1668), “Tartuffe” (1664), “The Bourgeois in the Nobility” (1670), “Scutelin Scalen” (1671), “Imaginary Ill” (1673) and his other plays still do not descend from the stage, and their wit and brilliance do not
February 17, 1673 during the presentation of the comedy “The Imaginary Sick”, in which Moliere appeared in the title role, the playwright became ill. He managed to give out convulsions for the game, so that the play was not ripped off. A few hours after the end of the performance, Moliere passed away.
Moliere was the son of the era of classicism, but the genre of comedy gave him more freedom. In a number of farcical and domestic comedies of Moliere the folk carnival element comes to life. By exposing his vices in his works, the playwright tried to improve human nature and correct morals, which corresponded to the philosophy of classicism.
On the other hand, in his “high comedies” (“Misanthrope”, “Don Juan”), the author mixed “high” and “low” genres. He turned to the language of the street, which was unusual for the classics. Moliere’s innovations were not just a departure from classicism: they opened the way to realism.
For all the liveliness, emotionality of Moliere’s creativity, the most important feature of his genius was his intellectuality. Exploring the wide layers of life, the author selected only those features that were necessary for the image of certain types, without seeking a versatile image of the characters. According to Alexander Pushkin, “Moliere’s Miser is stingy – and only”. In comedies, the character of a man developed not in complex variety, but in the expression of the predominant feature, and therefore the satirical colors in his plays are extremely condensed. The nationality of the comedies of Moliere – in their cheerful, optimistic tone, piercing all the images, including satirical ones. According to the definition of Leo Tolstoy, “Moliere is perhaps the most national and therefore the perfect artist of the new art.”