In the V-VI centuries. among the population of Arabia there is a tendency to overcome tribal fragmentation and create a single Arab state. It found expression and preaching the worship of God alone. Preachers of the same faith began to appear in different parts of Arabia. In Mecca, Muhammad, who was born in the Quraysh family around 570, became such a preacher. His parents engaged in trade, but died early. The orphan was taken up by relatives. However, already a teenager, Mohammed earned himself a camel driver. Perhaps he went with caravans to Syria and sailed on merchant ships on the Red Sea.
Soon a clever young man attracted the attention of Khadija, the widow of a rich merchant, who instructed him to conduct her business affairs. Five years later, obviously making sure of its reliability, Khadija invites Mohammed to marry her. This proposal was extremely beneficial for a young man who does not have the necessary means to conduct serious business. Ignoring the public opinion, because the groom was 25. and the bride is 40 years old, in 595 they marry. According to his new status, Muhammad occupies the proper place in the trade circles of Mecca, leads a calm, measured life.
From the youngest, Muhammad was inclined to religious reflections. He loved to seclude himself, prayed and fasted, discussing the meaning of life. In one such contemplative night in 610, Archangel Jebrail appeared before Muhammad and reported that God had chosen him as his prophet. Doubting
Then Muhammad received new revelations, which struck him to the depths of his soul. He believed in his prophetic mission. Later, supporters began to gather around Muhammad. Muhammad urged to renounce the pagan gods and accept complete obedience to Allah. Hence the name of the new religion – Islam, that is, “obedience”. Accepted in Europe, the name Muslim comes from the Arabic word “Muslim”, which means “obedient to God.”
Bold sermons of Muhammad and his calls to accept a new faith aroused dissatisfaction with the nobility, who received considerable profit from the pilgrimage to the Kaaba. The situation was so tense and dangerous that in 622 Mohammed with his family and coreligionists had to flee from Mecca to the nearby commercial city of Yasrib. This event – Hijra – is considered in Islam the beginning of a new era, the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
The modern Kaaba is located in the center of al-Haram mosque next to the source of Zemzem. This cubic stone structure without windows, with a height of almost 10 m and a width of about 8 m with a flat roof. The outer walls of the Kaaba are covered with black brocade, on which Muhammad’s prophecies are embroidered. Paul Kaaba is laid out in marble, no furniture in it. In the eastern corner of the wall there is a Black Stone with silver frame. According to the tradition of the Muslims, this stone is “the apple of Allah”. Pilgrims went to him to find out their fate after death. Through the Black Stone sinners saw infernal torment, and the righteous – a luxurious paradise.
In Yasrib Muhammad successfully preached. Residents of Yasrib decided to give their city a new name – Medina. It was here that Muhammad opened the first Muslim temple of the mosque, introduced the order of Muslim worship. Subsequently, he became the ruler of Medina and began a war with Mecca. In 630 Mohammed approached with an army under the walls of Mecca and, without encountering resistance, entered the city as a winner. He went round the Kaaba seven times, bowed twice and ordered to throw away all the idols that adorned the temple. Since that time the Kaaba has become the sanctuary of the Muslims. Islam won.
VIII century. From the “Life of the Messenger of God” – an Arab writer and theologian Ibn Ishaq
Зейд, отправляясь в дорогу, получил от Мухаммеда такие наставления: требуй от врагов, чтобы они приняли ислам и, или переселились в Медину, в таком случае они будут иметь право и обязанности переселенцев, или остались в своей стране и, в таком случае, они, подобно арабам-мусульманам, будут находиться под властью Аллаха, но не будут получать доли в добыче, за исключением случаев, если они будут принимать участие в походе. Если они не захотят принять ислам, то требуй от них уплаты всеобщего налога. Если они и на это не согласятся, вступай в бой.
С завоеванием Мекки Мухаммед стал утверждать новую веру во всей Аравии. Это положило начало объединению аравийских городов и кочевых племен в единое государство. Но В 632 г. Мухаммед занемог и умер. Его могила в Медине, рядом с Каабой, стала второй великой святыней мусульман и местом паломничества.
Soon after Muhammad’s death, his disciples and like-minded people recorded from memory the prophecies and revelations of their teacher. These records became the basis of the holy book of the Muslims of the Koran. It consists of separate parts sur. The complement of the Qur’an is the Sunnah collection of statements by Mohammed.
According to the Quran, Muhammad is the last prophet in the pleiad of the Lord’s messengers, referred to in the Old Testament and the Bible. Prior to Muhammad, such prophets were Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus Christ. Muhammad’s letters contain the knowledge of his predecessors and new revelations, and therefore, according to his followers, only they are true. Muhammad did not deny Judaism and Christianity, but argued that the supporters of these religions did not understand the depth of the revelation given him. Therefore, he considered them “infidels”, and Muslims “orthodox”. It is the duty of the Muslims to spread Islam, courageously preach its principles and even take part in the Jihad, a holy war against the “infidels”.
The new religion of Muhammad ascribed to each Muslim to adhere to five rules: 1) to believe in one God – Allah; 2) to pray five times a day, facing Mecca; 3) adhere to the month of fasting, during which you can not eat until sunset; 4) to do charity and pay a special tax in favor of the poor; 5) at least once in my life to make a pilgrimage to Mecca for the Prophet’s homeland.
According to the Koran, the faithful are not allowed to eat pork, play gambling, women should cover their faces.
VII century. From the Koran
It is not in the same piety that you turn your faces to both the west and the east, and the pious one who believes in Allah, on the last day, in the angels, in the scriptures, in the prophets, and handed out the property, regardless of the love of wealth, loved ones, and orphans, and poor people, and travelers, and beggars, and slaves.
And when the months of the ban will end, beat the pagans, where you find them, seize them, take them under siege, make ambushes against them in every hidden place! If they turned, and prayed, and cleansed, then free them the way “: for Allah is All-forgiving, merciful!
The mosque is a religious construction for Muslims, in which worship services are held and sermons are pronounced.