Brief dictionary of musical terms

Accompaniment (accompanian accompaniment) is a musical background to the basic Melody, which in the work is of secondary importance.

Accord (italian accordo, French accord – consent) – consonance, the sounding of several (not less than three) musical tones, taken, as a rule, simultaneously. A. are divided into consonant and dissonant (see Consonance and Dissonance).

Act (Latin actus – action) is a relatively complete part of the theatrical performance (Opera, Ballet, etc.), separated from the other same part by a break – An intermission. Sometimes A. is divided into Pictures.

Ensemble (fr together ensemble – together) – 1. The name for independent music Episodes in the Opera, representing the simultaneous singing of two or more singers, Vocal parts of which are not identical; by the number of participants A. are divided into Duets, Trio or Tercets, Quartets, Quintets, Sextets, etc. 2. A piece intended for joint performance by several musicians, most often instrumentalists. 3. The quality of joint performance, the degree of coherence, fusion of the general sound.

Intermission (Fr. entr’acte – letters, inter-action) – 1. A break between Acts of theatrical performance or Concert offices. 2. Orchestral Introduction to one of the acts, except the first (see Overture)

Arietta (it. Arietta) is a small Aria.

Arioso (it’s arioso – like the aria) is a kind of Aria, distinguished by a freer build, closely related to the preceding and subsequent musical Episodes.

Aria (italy aria – song) – a developed Vocal episode in opera, Oratorio or Cantata, performed by one singer accompanied by an Orchestra, which has a wide-ranging Melody and completeness of the musical form. Sometimes A. consists of several Contrast (see) sections. Varieties of A. – Arietta, Arioso, Cavatina, Cabaletta, Canzona, Monologue, etc.

Ballet (ballet from Italian ballo – dance, dance) is a major musical and choreographic genre (see). The genre in which the main artistic means is dance, as well as pantomime, presented on the stage in a scenic decoration accompanied by orchestral music. B. in the form of independent dance scenes is sometimes part of the Opera.

Ballade (French ballade, it’s ballare – to dance) – originally the name of the Provencal (France) dance Song; then – a literary-poetic genre, connected with folk traditions or narrating about the events of the past. Since the beginning of the XIX century. – designation of Vocal and Instrumental Piece of the narrative warehouse.

The baritone (Greek barytono – heavy-sounded) is the male voice of the middle between Bass and Tenor of the register; another name is a high bass.

Barcarola (from Italian barca – boat, barcaruola – boatman’s song) is the genus of the Song, distributed in Venice, as well as the name of Vocal and Instrumental Pieces of a contemplative melodic character with a smooth, swaying Accompaniment; the size is 6/8. Another name B. – Gondolier (from the Italian gondola – Venetian boat).

Bass (Italian basso – low, Greek basis – basis) – 1. The lowest male voice. 2. The general name of the low in the Register of orchestral instruments (cello, double bass, bassoon, etc.).

Bolero (Spanish bolero) – Spanish dance, known from the end of the XVIII century, moderately fast movement, accompanied by blows of castanets; the size is 3/4.

Bylina is a work of the Russian folk epic, a narrative of old times, of the heroic heroes’ heroic deeds. B. has the character of a leisurely, smooth Recitative, like a singing speech; sometimes accompanied by playing the harp and other musical instruments.

Waltz (French valse, German Walzer) is a dance that originated from Austrian, German and Czech folk dances. V. dances in pairs in a smooth circular motion; size 3/4 or 3/8, the tempo varies from very slow to fastest. Thanks to the special imaginative and expressive possibilities, V. received from the middle of the 19th century a wide circulation not only as a dance and concert genre, but also as an important part of the music of the Opera, Ballet, Symphony and even Chamber – Solo and Ensemble (see). works.

Variations (Latin variatio – change) – a musical work based on a gradual change outlined at the beginning of the Theme, during which the original image develops and enriches without losing its essential features.

Virtuoso (virtuoso – literally valiant, courageous) is a musician who perfectly knows his instrument or voice, easily, brilliantly overcoming any technical difficulties. Virtuosity is the skill and technical perfection of musical performance. Virtuoso music is music that is full of technical difficulties, requiring a brilliant, spectacular performance.

Vaudeville (voix de ville – the voice of the city) is a cheerful theatrical play, usually comedic, including separate Vocal and Dance Numbers.

Vocalise (from Latin vox – voice) – a musical piece for singing without words, most often representing a training exercise; sometimes V. is of artistic significance.

Vocal music (from italian vocale – voice) – music for singing – Solo, Ensemble or Choral (see) with or without Accompaniment.

Entry – the initial section that directly introduces a Vocal or Instrumental play, a picture or an Act of musical-theatrical performance.

Gavotte (French gavotte) is an ancient French folk dance; later, from the XVII century entered the court everyday life, in the XVIII century took a place in the dance suite. Music G. energetic, moderately rapid movement, size 4/4 with a characteristic two-quartert tact.

Harmony (Greek harmonia – proportionality, consistency) – 1. One of the expressive means of musical art, associated with the Accordian (see) combinations of tones and their successions, accompanying the main Melody. 2. The science of Chords, their movement and connections. 3. The name of individual chord sound combinations when characterizing their expressiveness (“hard harmony”, “light harmony”, etc.). 4. The general designation of a circle of chordal means characteristic of a work, a Composer, a musical style (“Mussorgsky’s harmony”, “romantic harmony”, etc.).

The hymn (Greek hymnos) is a solemn hymn of praise.

The grotesque (fanciful, ugly, strange) is an artistic device associated with the deliberate exaggeration or distortion of the real features of the image, which gives it a quaint, fantastic, often caricature-humorous, sometimes frightening character.

Gusli (from Old Russian gusel – string) is an ancient Russian folk instrument, which is a hollow flat box on which metal strings are stretched. The game of G. was usually accompanied by the performance of bylina. The performer on G. is the ghuslar.

Recitation is the artistic reading of poetry or prose in an emotionally uplifting manner. D. musical – the faithful reproduction in the Recitative of characteristic intonations – increases, depressions, accents, etc. – expressive human speech.

Woodwinds are a common name for a group of instruments, which include a flute (with flute-piccolo and alto flute varieties), oboe (with a variant alto oboe, or English horn), clarinet (with clarinet-piccolo and bass clarinet) bassoon (with a variety of counterfeit). D. d. And. They are also used in Brass bands, various Chamber ensembles and as Solo instruments (see). In the orchestral score, the group of D. d. occupies the top lines, located in the order indicated above.

Decimet (from the Latin decimus – the tenth) – Opera or Chamber ensemble of ten participants.

Dialogue (Greek dialogos – conversation between two) – A scene-conversation of two opera persons of the Opera; the roll-call of the alternating short musical phrases, as if responding to each other.

Divertissement (fr divertissement – amusement, entertainment) – a musical work, built like a Suite, consisting of several differently, mostly dance, Numbers. D. is also called a separate instrumental play of entertaining nature.

Dynamics (from Greek dynamikos – power) – 1. Strength, loudness of sound. 2. The designation of the degree of tension, the effective aspiration of the musical narrative (“dynamics of development”).

Dramaturgy – literature, involving a scenic embodiment; the science of the laws of building a dramatic play. In the twentieth century, the term D. was also applied to the musical and theatrical art, and then to major instrumental and symphonic works that were not associated with the stage. D. musical – a set of principles for the construction and development of music of the Opera, Ballet, Symphony, etc. for the purpose of the most logical, consistent and effective embodiment of the selected plot, ideological design.

Duma, dumka is a narrative Ukrainian folk song of the Free Recitative-Improvised Warehouse with instrumental accompaniment. Usually D. is devoted to a story about historical events, but sometimes acquires the features of a sincere, sad song of a purely lyrical content.

Brass Band – Orchestra consisting of Brass and Wood Wind and Percussion instruments. Before. It has a powerful, bright sonority.

Wind instruments are instruments that are different in shape, size and material, representing a tube or a set of tubes that are sounded by the vibrations of the air column enclosed in them. According to the material and method of sound extraction, D. I. are divided into Copper and Wooden. Among the D. and. belongs also to the Authority.

Duo (from Latin duo – two) – Opera or Chamber ensemble of two participants.

Duettino (Italian duettino) is a small Duo.

Genre (genre – type, manner) – 1. Type of musical work, determined by various characteristics: by the nature of subjects (eg, epic, comic), the nature of the plot (eg, historical, mythological), composition (eg, G – Opera, Ballet, Symphony, Vocal (see), instrumental), circumstances of performance (eg, Concert, Chamber, etc.), features of form (eg J. Romans, Songs, instrumental or orchestral Miniatures), etc. 2. Genre (in music) – associated with the characteristics of folk everyday life musical genres. 3. Genre scene – household scene.

Chorus – the beginning of the Choral song, performed by one singer – a soloist.

Singspiel (German Singspiel from singen – singing and Spiel – the game) – the genus of the Comic Opera, combining conversational Dialogues with singing and dancing; Z. received the greatest development in Germany and Austria in the second half of the 18th and early 20th centuries. XIX centuries.

Improvisation (from Latin improvisus – unforeseen, unintentional) – creativity in the process of execution, without preliminary preparation, by inspiration; also a description of a certain kind of musical works or their individual Episodes, differing with whimsical freedom of presentation.

Instrumentation is the same as Orchestration.

Intermedia (Latin intermedia – located in the middle) – 1. A small musical piece, placed between the more important parts of a major work. 2. Inserted Episode or Scene in a major theatrical work, suspending the development of the action and not having to it direct relationship. 3. The connecting Episode between the two conducting of the Theme in Fugue, passing episode in the instrumental play in general.

Intermezzo (itme intermezzo – pause, intermission) – A piece connecting more important sections; Also the name of separate, mainly instrumental, plays of different character and content.

Introduction (Latin introductio – introduction) – 1. Small-sized operatic Overture, directly activating. 2. The initial section of a Piece, which has its own Tempo and the nature of the music.

Kabaletta (from italian cabalare – to fantasize) is a small operatic aria, often heroically upbeat.

Cavatina (cavatina) is a kind of opera aria, characterized by a more free construction, lyrical melody, lack of Tempov (see) contrasts.

Chamber music (from the IT camera – room) – music for soloing (see solo) instruments or voices, small ensembles, designed for performance in small concert halls.

Canon (Greek kanon – rule, sample) – a kind of polyphonic music, based on the alternate entry of voices with the same Melody.

Kant (from Latin cantus – singing) – in Russian, Ukrainian and Polish music of the 17th-18th centuries, lyrical songs for a three-voice chorus without accompaniment; in the era of Peter I, the welcoming K. of the cheerful March-like character (see Marsh) spread on the occasion of official festivities.

Cantata (from itan cantare – to sing) is a great work for singers-Soloists, Choir and Orchestra, consisting of a number of numbers – Arias, Recitative, Ensembles, Choirs. From the oratorio K. differs in the absence of a detailed and sequentially embodied plot.

Cantilena (Latin cantilena – chanting singing) – a wide melodious melody.

Canzone (Italian canzone – song) – the old name of the Italian lyric Song with instrumental accompaniment; subsequently – the name of instrumental pieces of a lyric song.

Canzonetta (itz. Canzonetta – song) – a small Cantone, a melodious Vocal or instrumental piece of a small size.

Picture – 1. In the musical and theatrical work part of the Act, separated not by the intermission, but by a brief pause, during which the curtain falls for a short time. 2. The designation of instrumental-symphonic works, for which the specific concreteness and clarity of musical images are characteristic; Sometimes such works belong to the genre of program music.

Quartet (from Latin quartus – the fourth) – opera-vocal or instrumental (most often String) ensemble of four participants.

Quintet (from Latin quintus – the fifth) – opera-vocal or instrumental Ensemble of five participants.

Piano (short it Klavierauszug -.. Piano extract) – processing, arranged for Piano work written for orchestra or ensemble, and Opera Cantatas or speakers (retaining vocals).

The code (ita coda – tail, end) is the final section of a musical work, usually energetic, impetuous, asserting its main idea, the dominant image.

Coloratura (coloratura – coloring, decoration) – coloring, variation of the Vocal melody by various flexible, mobile passages, Virtuosity ornaments.

Coloring (in Latin color – color) in music is the predominant emotional coloration of a particular episode, achieved using different Registers, Timbres, Harmonic (see) and other expressive means.

Carol is a common name for Slavic folk ritual songs of pagan origin associated with the celebration of Christmas (New Year’s Eve).

Composer (Latin compositor – composer, compiler, creator) is the author of a musical work.

Composition (Latin compositio – compilation, arrangement) – 1. Musical creativity, the process of creating a musical work. 2. The internal structure of a musical work is the same as a musical form. 3. A separate piece of music.

Contralto (Italian contralto) is the lowest female voice, the same as in the Horus alto.

Counterpoint (from Latin punctum contra punctum – point vs. point, i. e. note versus note) – 1. Simultaneous combination of two or more melodically independent voices. 2. The science of the laws of combining simultaneously sounding Melodies, the same as Polyphony.

Contrast (contrast) is a vivid expressive medium of music, consisting in the rapprochement and direct opposition of dissimilar, sharply differing in the nature of musical Episodes. Musical figurative and emotional K. is carried out with the help of Tempov, Dynamic, Tonal, Registry, Tembral (see) and other oppositions.

Concert (from the Latin concertare – to compete, italian concerto – consent) – 1. Public performance of musical works. 2. A large, usually three-part work for the Solo instrument (see) with the Orchestra, brilliant, spectacular, possessing advanced elements of Virtuosity, in some cases approaching the richness and significance of the ideological and artistic content of the Symphony.

The culmination (from the Latin culmen – the top, the peak) is the moment of the highest tension in musical Development.

Verse (French couplet – stanza) is a repeat part of the Song.

Denomination (French coupure – cutting, shortening) is the reduction of a musical work by means of seizure, skipping of any Episode, in the Opera – Scene, Picture or Act.

Lezginka – a dance, common among the peoples of the Caucasus, temperamental, impetuous; size 2/4 or 6/8.

The leitmotiv (German Leitmotiv is the leading motive) is a musical thought, a Melody associated with a certain character, a memory, an experience, a phenomenon or an abstract concept in the Opera when it appears or is mentioned in the course of a stage action.

Ländler (German Ländler) – German and Austrian folk dance, the predecessor of Waltz, a lively but not fast movement; the size is 3/4.

Libretto (it libretto – notebook, booklet) – the full literary text of the Opera, Operetta; a verbal statement of the content of the Ballet. Author L. – librettist.

Madrigal is a European multi-voiced secular song of the 16th century, of an exquisite character, usually of love content.

Mazurka (from Polish mazur – a resident of Mazovia) – Polish dance of national origin, animated character, with a sharp, sometimes syncopated (see) Rhythm; the size is 3/4.

March (marche – walking, procession) – Genre associated with the Rhythm of walking, characterized by a clear, measured, energetic movement. M. is marching, solemn, mourning; size 2/4 or 4/4.

Brass instruments – Wind instruments made from copper and other metals, forming a special group in the symphony orchestra, which includes horns, pipes (sometimes partially replaced by cornet), trombones and tuba. M. d. And. are the foundation of the Brass Band. In the symphonic score the group of M. d. is written under a group of Woodwinds, located in the order indicated above.

Meistersinger (German Meistersinger – master of singing) – in medieval Germany (XIV-XVII century) guild musicians.

Melodeclamation (from Greek melos – song and Latin declamatio – recitation) – expressive reading (most often poetry) accompanied by music.

Melody (Greek melodia – singing a song from melos – a song and an ode – singing) – the main idea of ​​a musical work, expressed in a one-tone melody, is the most important means of musical expressiveness.

Melodrama (from Greek melos – song and drama – action) – 1. Part of the dramatic work, accompanied by music. 2. The negative characteristic of works or Episodes, differing by exaggerated sensitivity, sentimentality, bad taste.

Menuet (French menuet) is an ancient French dance, originally of national origin, in the 17th century – a court dance, at the end of the 18th century it was introduced into the Symphony Cycle (see Symphony). M. differs smoothness and graceful movements; the size is 3/4.

The mass (French messa, Latin missa) is a large multi-part work for Chorus with instrumental accompaniment, sometimes with the participation of Solist singers, written in a religious Latin text. M. is the same as the Catholic Mass, the liturgy.

Mezzo-soprano (from Italian mezzo – middle and soprano) is a female voice, in the intermediate position between the Soprano and Contralto. mezzo soprano in the Choir – the same as the viola.

Miniatura (miniatura) is a small Orchestral, Vocal (see) or instrumental piece.

A monologue (from the Greek monos – one, a speech spoken by one person) in music is one of the most effective Solo vocal forms in the Opera, which usually captures the process of intense emotion or reflection, leading to a decision. M., as a rule, is built from several non-identical, Contrast episodes.

Motive (from itivo motivo – motive, motivation, and Latin motus – movement) – 1. A part of the Melody, which has an independent expressive meaning; a group of sounds of a melody united around one accent – accents. 2. In the popular meaning – melody, melody.

The musical drama is originally the same as Opera. In the common sense – one of the operas Genres, which is characterized by the leading role of intense dramatic action, unfolding on the stage and defining the principles of musical embodiment.

Musical comedy – see Operetta.

Nocturne (french nocturne – night) – the name of comparatively small instrumental (rarely – Vocal) pieces of lyrical and contemplative nature spreading in the XIX century with an expressive melodious melody.

Number – the smallest, relatively complete, allowing a separate, independent performance Episode of Opera, Ballet or Operetta.

Nonet (from the Latin nonus – the ninth) is a comparatively rare kind of opera or chamber Ensemble for nine participants.

Ode (Greek ode) – borrowed from the literature the name of a musical work (more often – Vocal) solemn laudatory character.

Octet (from Latin octo – eight) – Ensemble of eight participants.

Opera (ita opera – action, work, from Latin opus – work, creation) – a synthetic genre of musical art, including dramatic action, singing and dancing, accompanied by orchestral music, as well as scenic and decorative design. The opera is composed of Solo episodes – Arias, Recitative, as well as Ensembles, Choirs, Ballet Scenes, independent orchestral numbers (see Overture, Entract, Introduction). O. is divided into acts and pictures. As an independent genre O. spread in Europe in the XVII century, in Russia – from the middle of the XVIII century. Further development led to the formation of various national styles and ideological and artistic types of opera art (see O. Greater French, O.-Buffa, O. comic, O. lyric-dramatic, O. lyric French, O. beggars, O.- Seria, O. Epic, Singshpil, Musical drama, Operetta). As a result of the manifold historical development, O. became the most democratic genre among the complex monumental genres of musical art.

Opera is a large French (French grand opéra) – a variety that became widespread in the middle of the XIX century, which is characterized by the embodiment of historical themes in a monumental, colorful, richly effective moments of the performance.

Opera-buffa (Italian opera-buffa) is an Italian comic opera, which arose in the first half of the 18th century. About. based on everyday subjects, often acquired a satirical color. Developed from the Italian folk “comedy of masks” (comedia del arte), O.-b. reflected the progressive democratic tendencies of the late 18th and first half of the 19th century.

Opera comic – the common species name of the opera genre that arose in Europe from the middle of the eighteenth century under the influence of democratic ideas as opposed to court and aristocratic art. O. in different countries wore different names: in Italy – Opera Buffa, in Germany and Austria – Singspiel, in Spain – Tonadilla, in England – Opera beggars, or ballad, song opera. O. K. Is the common name of the French variety of this genre proper, for which the inclusion of colloquial Dialogues is characteristic.

Opera lyrico-dramatic – a kind that developed in the opera art of the second half of the XIX century. For O. l.-. it is... characteristic to bring to the forefront dramatic, often tragic personal fates and human relationships, shown on a realistically realistic background of life, the Composer’s profound attention to the psychic life of the characters, their feelings, psychological contradictions and conflicts.

Opera lyrical French – a proper name of the French lyric-dramatic opera.

Opera beggars (English beggars opera) is an English version of the Comic Opera, in which folk songs-Ballads were widely used.

Opera-seria (Italian opera seria – a serious opera, in contrast to the comic) – an Italian opera of the XVIII century, associated with the court-aristocratic environment. Founded, as a rule, on mythological and historical-legendary subjects, O. S. was distinguished by the magnificence of the production, the virtuoso brilliance of the Vocal parts, but in its development it was constrained by the conventionality of the plots, situations and characters.

The opera epic is a kind of classical opera, which gained its predominant development in Russia, characterized by the use of stories from folk epics – legends, legends and samples of folk song art. Stage action and music. stand in the spirit of a majestic, unhurried narrative. To Genre O. e. adjoins also opera-tale.

Operetta (Italian operetta – small opera) – a theatrical performance that combines singing and dancing accompanied by an Orchestra with conversational scenes, originating from the Comic Opera of the 18th century. European O. XIX century is characterized by an abundance of comic positions of a satirical or purely entertaining nature. In Soviet musical and theatrical art, O. is often referred to as the Musical Comedy.

Oratorio (from Latin oratoria – eloquence) – a large vocal-symphonic genre of musical art, whose works are intended for performance by Horom, Soloists-singers and Orchestra. At the heart of O. lies a certain plot, generalized narrating about historical or legendary events of the people’s life, usually possessing sublime, heroic color. The plot of O. is embodied in a number of completed Solo, Choral and Orchestral (see) numbers, sometimes shared by the Recitative.

Organ (from the Greek organon – instrument, instrument) – the largest of modern musical instruments, which existed and improved over many centuries. About, represents the system of the pipes sounding by blowing in them of a stream of air, made by a mechanical method. The presence of pipes of various sizes and shapes allows you to extract sounds of different heights and timbres. Control O. is carried out using keyboards, manual (manuals, reaching up to three) and foot (pedal), as well as numerous Registers switches. On power and colorful richness of sound, O. vies with the symphony Orchestra.

Orchestra (from the Greek orchestra – in the Greek theater place in front of the stage, which housed the choir) – a large group of musicians, singers, designed for the joint performance of musical works. Unlike the Ensemble, some Parts in O. are performed simultaneously by several musicians, like the one-chorus Choir. As for the composition of the instruments, O. is divided into symphonic, Brass, folk instruments, variety, jazz, etc. Opera O., as well as symphonic, consists of four main groups of instruments – groups of Woodwinds, Brass bands, Percussion, String Bowers, and also includes some individual instruments that do not belong to any of the groups (harp, occasionally pianoforte, guitar, etc.).

Orchestration – the creation of orchestral score, the embodiment of musical thought means of orchestral expressiveness. O. – the same as Instrumentovka.

Parody (Greek parodià, from para – against and ode – song, singing, letters, singing on the contrary) – imitation for the purpose of distortion, mockery.

Score (itit partitura – division, distribution) – musical notation Ensemble, Orchestral, Opera, Oratorio-cantata (see), etc. music, which requires many performers. The number of lines is determined by the number of parts included in it – instrumental, solo-vocal and choral, which are arranged in a certain order.

The party (from the Latin pars – part) is part of the music of the Ensemble, the Opera, etc., performed by one or a group of musicians or singers.

Pastoral (past Latin pastoralis – shepherd’s) – music, a musical play or a theatrical scene, expressed in soft, lyrically soft contemplative tones, depicting tranquil pictures of nature and an idealized serene rural life (idyll).

The song is the main Vocal genre of folk music and a related genre of vocal music in general. For P. characterized by the presence of a clear, convex, expressive and harmonious Melody, which has a generalized figurative and emotional content, embodies the feelings and thoughts of not an individual person, but the people. The totality of these features is included in the concept of songness as a special means of musical expressiveness, a special storehouse of musical thinking. Narodnaya P., reflecting in the innumerable variety of varieties and genres the most diverse aspects of the life of the people, is the main source of musical art. In the development of folk poetry and the highly artistic refraction of its national characteristics, the greatest merit belongs to Russian Classical Composers. In their works P. widely represented as a domestic genre, at the same time song, the song principle became for them the leading artistic device. In the narrow sense, P. is a small vocal piece with or without accompaniment, characterized by simplicity and melodically expressive melody, usually in a Couple form, as well as an instrumental play of a similar size and character.

The echo is a more or less independent Melody, accompanying in the many-voiced music the main melody. The presence of developed P. is a characteristic feature of the Russian folk choral music.

Polyphony (from Greek poly – a lot and phone – voice, letters, polyphony) – 1. Simultaneous combination of two or several independent Melodies that have an independent expressive meaning. 2. The science of music is polyphonic, the same as Counterpoint.

Prelude, prelude (from Latin prae – before and ludus – game) – 1. Introduction, introduction to the play or completed Musical episode, the stage of opera, ballet, etc. 2. The common name of small instrumental pieces of various content, character and construction.

Premiere – the first performance of the Opera, Ballet, Operetta on the stage; the first public performance of a musical work (applies only to major works).

The refrain is part of the Song, invariably, along with the same verbal text, repeated after each of its Couplets.

Pritchet, lamentations – Song of lamentation, one of the genres of folk song prevalent in pre-revolutionary Russia; has usually the nature of a mournfully-excited Recitative.

Prologue (from Latin prae – before and Greek logos – word, speech) – the introductory part in the drama, novel, opera, etc., introducing into the narrative; sometimes P. introduces the events that preceded the depicted.

The development of music is the movement of musical images, their changes, collisions, mutual transitions, reflecting the processes that take place in the psychic life of a person or the hero of the musical-theatrical performance, as well as in the surrounding reality. RMA is an important factor in the musical drama, directing the attention of the listener to the most essential parts of the narrative. It is carried out with the help of a variety of compositional and expressive techniques; It involves all means of musical expression.

Requiem (from the Latin requiem – rest) is a monumental work for Chorus, Solo singers and Orchestra. Originally, R. is a mourning Catholic mass. Subsequently, in the works of Mozart, Berlioz, Verdi, R. lost the ritual-religious character, turning into a dramatic, philosophically significant musical genre, animated by deep universal feelings and great thoughts.

Recitative (from Latin recitare – to read, recite) – musical speech, the most flexible Form of solo singing in the Opera, featuring a great rhythmic (see) variety and freedom of construction. Usually, R. enters into the Aria, emphasizing her melodic melodiousness. Often in R. the characteristic intonations of living human speech are reproduced, making it an indispensable tool in creating a musical portrait of an actor. The main varieties of R. are P.-secco (“dry”, accompanied by rare jerky chords of the orchestra or chymbalo), R.-accompagnato (“accompanied”, sounding on the background of a connected chord accompaniment) and R.-obligato (“obligatory” indicates the need for an orchestral accompaniment of an independent melodic thought).

Rigodon (french rigodon, rigaudon) – an ancient Provencal (France) dance of the XVII-XVIII centuries, a lively, cheerful movement; size 4/4 or 2/3 with one quarter attack.

Rhythm (from the Greek rythmos – a dimensional current) – the organization of musical movement in time, periodic alternation and the ratio of strong and weak shares. Periodically repeating group of strong and weak shares is called a tact. The number of beats in a clock is called the clock size. R. – an important expressive means of musical art, reaching a special wealth and diversity in dance music associated with the plasticity of the movement of the human body.

Romance (romance) – Solo lyrical Song with instrumental accompaniment, characterized by an intimate sense system, individualized content, special subtlety and expressive variety of Accompaniment. Vocal Melody R. often includes elements of Recitative.

Rondo (rondeau from ronde – round, the name of an ancient French choral song) – The form of the construction of a musical play, consisting of several (not less than three) Contrast Episodes, divided periodically by the returning first episode (refrain).

Sarabanda (Spanish zarabanda) is an ancient Spanish dance in the character of a slow majestic procession; the size is 3/4. Genre S. was often used to create images of deep mournful meditation, a funeral procession.

Seguidilla (Spanish seguidilla) – fast Spanish dance, accompanied by the whimsical Rhythm of castanets; size 3/4 or 3/8.

Sextet (from Latin sextus – sixth) – opera-vocal or instrumental Ensemble of seven participants.

Serenade (from sera – evening, letter, “evening song”) – originally in Spain and Italy, a love song, sung with Accompaniment of a guitar or mandolin under the beloved’s window. Then – works of a welcoming nature for instrumental Ensembles and Orchestra. Subsequently, S. – the name of lyrical solo songs with instrumental accompaniment, stylized in the spirit of guitar Accompaniment, as well as the name of the lyrical instrumental or orchestral cycle.

Symphony (from the Greek symphonia – consonance) – a monumental work for the orchestra, whose genre was formed in the second half of the XVIII century. S., as a rule, consists of four large, varied, contrasting parts, in which a wide range of life phenomena is reflected, a wealth of moods and conflicts is embodied. The first part of the SS usually has a conflict-dramatic character and is sustained in a rapid movement; Sometimes it is preceded by a slow introduction. The second is a lyrical, lyrical, mood-filled meditation. The third – Minuet, Scherzo or Waltz – in a lively dance movement. The fourth is the Final, the fastest, often festive, upbeat character. However, there are other principles of construction. The totality of the parts, united by a common poetic idea, forms a symphonic cycle.

Scherzo (IT scherzo – joke) – a small instrumental or orchestral work of a lively, fervent character, with a sharp, clear rhythm, sometimes acquiring a dramatic color. Since the beginning of the XIX century, S. entered the symphony cycle, taking the place of Minueta in it.

Skomorokhi – the bearers of Russian folk art in the XI-XVII centuries, wandering actors, musicians and dancers.

Solo (solo solo – one, only) is an independent performance of one performer with the whole Play or in its separate Episode if the piece is written for Ensemble or Orchestra. Performer S. – soloist.

Sonata (from itare sonare – to sound) – 1. In the XVII century – the name of any instrumental work, in contrast to the vocal. 2. Since the XVIII century – the name of the work for one or two instruments, consisting of three or four parts of a certain character, which form a sonata cycle, in general terms similar to the symphony (see Symphony).

The sonata allegro is the form in which the first parts of the Sonata and Symphony are written – sustained in a rapid (allegro) Tempe. Form S. a. consists of three large sections: exposure, development and reprise. Exposition – an exposition of two central, contrasting musical images created in the main and side Parties; development – Development of the main and side parties, the clash and struggle of their images; reprise – the repetition of the exposition with a new correlation of the images of the main and secondary parties, achieved as a result of their struggle in development. Form S. a. the most effective, dynamic, it creates ample opportunities for a realistic reflection of the phenomena of objective reality and the psychic life of a person in their internal contradictions and unceasing development. Form S. a.

Soprano (from Italian sopra – above, above) – the highest female voice. C. is divided into Coloratura, lyric and dramatic.

Style (in music) – a set of characteristics that characterize the work of composers of a particular country, a historical period, a separate composer.

String instruments are instruments in which sound occurs as a result of vibration (vibration) of stretched strings. According to the method of sound production S. and. are divided into bowed (violin, viola, cello, double bass), keyboards (Piano and its predecessors, see Cembalo) and plucked (harp, mandolin, guitar, balalaika, etc.).

Scene (Latin scena from the Greek skene – tent, tent). – 1. The theatrical stage, on which the performance takes place. 2. Part of the theatrical performance, a separate Act Episode or Pictures.

Scenario (it’s scenario) – a more or less detailed account of the course of action unfolding on the stage in the Opera, Ballet and Operetta, a schematic retelling of their plot. Based on S. created the Libretto of the opera.

The suite is the name of a multi-parted cyclic work in which parts are compared according to the Contrast principle and have a less intimate inner ideological and artistic connection than in the symphonic cycle (see Symphony). Usually C. is a series of dances or descriptively illustrative plays of a program nature, and sometimes – extraction from a major musical and dramatic work (Opera, Ballet, Operetta, Film).

Tarantella (Italian tarantella) is a very fast, temperamental Italian folk dance; the size is 6/8.

The musical theme (Greek thema – the subject of the story) is the main musical thought, subject to Development, expressed in a relatively small completed, embossed, vividly expressive and memorable melody (see also Leitmotif).

Timbre (timbre) is a specific quality, a characteristic coloration of the sound of a voice or instrument.

Tempo (from IT tempo – time) – the speed of performance and the nature of movement in a musical work. T. is indicated by the words: very slowly – largo, slowly adagio, calmly, smoothly – andante, moderately fast moderato, fast – allegro, very fast presto ). Sometimes T. is determined by reference to the well-known character of the movement: “at the pace of the Waltz”, “at the pace of the March”. Since the middle of the XIX century, T. is also designated by metronome, where the figure corresponds to the number of specified durations per minute. The verbal nomenclature of T. often serves as the title of a play or for parts of it that do not have a title (for example, the names of parts in the Sonata Cycle – allegro, andante, etc., ballet adagio, etc.).

Tenor (from the Latin tenere – to keep, direct) – a tall male voice. T, is divided into lyrical and dramatic.

Tercet (from Latin tertius – third) – opera-vocal Ensemble of three participants. Another name T. – Trio, is also used to refer to instrumental Ensembles with the same number of performers.

Trio (italian trio from tre – three) – 1. In vocal music the same as Tercet. 2. Instrumental ensemble of three performers. 3. The middle section in the March, Waltz, Menewet, Scherzo is more fluid and singing; this meaning of the term arose in the ancient instrumental music, in whose works the middle section was performed by three instruments.

Troubadours, truers – knights-poets and singers in medieval France.

Overture (fr ouverture – opening, beginning) – 1. An orchestral piece performed before the beginning of the Opera or Ballet, usually based on the themes of the work to which it precedes, and succinctly embodying its main idea. 2. The name of an independent one-part orchestral piece, often related to program music.

Percussion instruments are musical instruments, of which sound is extracted by impact. U. and. there are: 1) with a certain height of sound – timpani, bells and bells, celesta, xylophone and 2) with a sound of indefinite height – tomtomes, large and small drums, tambourine, plates, triangle, castanets, etc.

Texture (Latin factura – literal division, processing) – the structure of the sound fabric of a musical composition, including Melody, accompanying its Podgoloski or Polyphonic Voices, Accompaniment, etc.

Fandango (Spanish fandango – Spanish folk dance of moderate movement, accompanied by playing castanets, size 3/4.

Fantasy (Greek phantasia – imagination, general fiction, fiction) – A virtuoso product of free Form. 1. In the XVII century improvised nature of the introduction to Fugue or Sonata. 2. A virtuoso composition on the themes of any Opera, the same as transcription (Latin transcriptio – rewriting) or paraphrase (from the Greek paraphrasis – description, paraphrase, paraphrase). 3. Instrumental work, distinguished by the bizarre, fantastic nature of music.

Fanfara is a pipe signal, usually festive solemn character.

Finale (Italian finale – final) – the final part of a multipart piece, Opera or Ballet.

Folklore (from the English folk – people and lore – teaching, science) – the totality of the works of oral literary and musical folk art.

Form musical (Latin forma – appearance, outlines) – 1. Means of embodiment of the ideological image, including Melody, Harmony, Polyphony, Rhythm, Dynamics, Timbre, Texture, as well as compositional principles of construction or F. in the narrow sense. 2. F. in the narrow sense – the historically formed and developed patterns of the structure of musical works, layouts and relationships of parts and sections, defining the general outlines of the musical work. The most common are F. three-part, verse, variational, Rondo, Sonata, and F. construction of the Suite, Sonata and Symphonic (see) Cycles.

Piano (from ite forte-piano – loud-quiet) is a common name for the keyboard String instrument (grand piano, piano), which, unlike its predecessors – harpsichord, Cembalo, clavichord, receives sounds of varying strength. The breadth of the sound range and dynamics, expressiveness and colorful variety of sound, great virtuoso-technical capabilities made F. mainly solo and concerto (see Concert) instrument, as well as a participant in many Chamber Instrumental Ensembles.

A fragment (from the Latin fragmentum – a fragment, a piece) is a fragment of something.

Phrase (Greek phrasis – speech, expression) – in music, a brief, relatively completed passage, part of the Melody, framed by pauses (caesures).

Fugue (Italian and Latin fuga – running) – one-part work, which is a polyphonic (see) presentation and the subsequent development of a single melody, Themes.

Fugato (from fuga) – Polyphonic Episode in the instrumental or Vocal Piece, built like Fugue, but not finished and turning into music of an ordinary, not polyphonic warehouse.

Fugetta (itug. Fugetta – small fugue) – Fugue small in size, with a reduced section of development.

Furiant (Czech, lit. – proud, zaznayka) – impetuous temperamental Czech folk dance; size variable – 2/4, 3/4.

Habanera (Spanish habanera – letters, Havana, from Havana) – Spanish folk song-dance, distinguished by a restrained clear Rhythm; the size is 2/4.

Chorus (from Greek choros) – 1. A large singing group consisting of several groups, each of which performs its own Party. 2. Works for the choir, independent or included in the opera, in which they are one of the most important forms, often used in the creation of mass popular scenes.

Choral (from the Greek choros) – 1. Church choral singing on a religious text, common in the Middle Ages. 2. A choral or other work or an episode based on an unhurried, unhurried movement of the Chords, distinguished by a lofty contemplative character.

Hota (Spanish jota) – Spanish folk dance of temperamental live movement, accompanied by a song; the size is 3/4.

A musical cycle (from the Greek kyklos – a circle, a circuit) is a collection of parts of a multipart composition that follow one another in a certain order. The principle of contrast lies at the heart of Ts. The main varieties are the sonata-symphonic Ts., Suite Ts. (See Symphony, Suite); to the number of cyclic belong also the forms of Mass and Requiem.

Cembalo (Italian cembalo, claviecembalo) is the Italian name for the harpsichord, the predecessor of the modern pianoforte. In the 17th and 18th centuries Ch. Was a member of the Opera or Oratorial Orchestra, accompanying the performance of Recitative.

Ecocez (French écossaise – “Scotch”) – the Scottish folk dance of rapid movement; the size is 2/4.

Expression (from Latin expressio – expression) in music is heightened expressiveness.

Elegy (Greek elegia from elegos – a complaint) – A play of a sad, pensive character.

Epigraph (Greek epigraphe – buvk inscription on the monument) is a figurative name of the initial musical phrase, Theme or passage, borrowed from literature, which determines the prevailing character, the leading thought of the whole work.

Episode (Greek epeisodion – incident, event) – a small part of the musical and theatrical action; Sometimes a section entered into the musical work that has the character of retreat.

Epilogue (Greek epilogos from epi – after and logos – word, speech) – the final part of the work, summing up the events, sometimes telling about the events that occurred after a while.

Epitaph (Greek epitaphios) is a tombstone.


Brief dictionary of musical terms