1. How does the nature of the Arctic seas vary from west to east?
The nature of the Arctic seas is harsh and unfriendly, they are covered with ice for most of the year. From the west to the east the seas become colder. If the influence of the Atlantic is still felt in the Barents Sea, then the thickness of the ice and the extent to which the seas are covered with ice are further eastward. The dwindling influence of the Pacific Ocean is manifested only in the part of the Chukchi Sea, which directly adjoins the Bering Strait.
2. Why do the Arctic seas have a greater impact on the climate of the interior regions of Siberia in the summer, and not in the winter?
In winter, the Arctic seas, like the land, are covered with ice, and differences in temperature or humidity do not appear. In the summer, the cold water masses contrast with the relatively warm land.
3. On the map of the atlas trace, in what geographical names is the memory of the researchers of the Arctic.
On the map you can find many geographical objects named after the Russian explorers: Vilkitsky Strait, Chelyuskin and Menshikov capes, Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Islands, Wrangel, Vilkitsky, Sverdrup, Bolshaya Begichev and others.
It should be noted that there are many foreign names on the map of the Russian Arctic. For example, the Long Strait is named after the American whaler, the captain of the ship T. Long; the archipelago of Nordenskiold is named after the Swedish researcher of the Arctic, the foreign corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences N. Nordenskiold. In the years 1878-1879. Nordenskiöld on the Vega ship was the first to pass the Northeast Passage from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. Another island keeps a memory of the Norwegian polar explorer O. Sverdrup – member of the expedition F. Nansen, who in 1914-1915. actively searched for the missing expedition of G. Ya. Sedov, V. A. Rusanov and G. L. Brusilov.
4. What economic activities are connected with the Arctic seas? What environmental problems arise in this connection? What are the possible solutions?
The fishing of marine animals has long been associated with the Arctic seas, which led to the extermination of a number of species and was banned.
5. The Arctic seas, despite the severity of their nature, attract tourists. Suggest travel routes for them. What objects and natural phenomena, in your opinion, can attract tourists?
One of the most
popular routes is visiting the North Pole, and despite all the difficulties many people are striving for this “crown” of the Earth. Such flights are made on the icebreaker Yamal. Other tourist sites are “bird markets”, rookeries of fur seals and walruses, which are observed all over the coast and in the reserves. Often found in the vast Arctic and polar bears.
6. Think about what countries of the world Russia could cooperate and cooperate at present in solving the problems of economic development of the Arctic.
At the beginning of the XXI century. in connection with the development of oil and gas fields of the Arctic shelf, they once again started talking about the Northern Sea Route. The Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation considers the concept of development of the Northern Sea Route as a transport corridor providing an alternative route for the delivery of oil products. It is assumed that it will carry about 10 million tons of cargo, primarily from northern oil companies. The main factor hampering the development of the NSR is the lack of icebreakers. For the Northern Sea Route to accept the planned volumes of cargo, it is required to build about 14 icebreakers. However, icebreakers are expensive products. A new icebreaker in our country has been under construction for 15 years. The biggest shipbuilding power – South Korea – is now showing great interest in the construction of icebreakers.
2007 is declared an international Arctic year. All Arctic countries are planning large-scale joint research to study the seas and islands of the Arctic Ocean with the aim of their possible economic development and solving environmental problems.