In recent years it has become fashionable to explain a lot in the life of this or that people by its mentality. Mentality is a mind, thinking, a way of thinking, a soulful storehouse for a whole group of people, a willingness to act, think, feel and perceive the world in a certain way.
They say that nineteenth-century Russian literature opened the soul of the Russian people and showed it in all its glory – with all the advantages and disadvantages. But it seems to me that she only summed up the accumulated experience. After all, if it is true that the mind and thinking are reflected in the culture of the people, then the Russian way of thinking manifested itself in the Middle Ages. Take, for example, the first literary monuments. And in the “Instruction” of Vladimir Monomakh, and in the “Lay of Igor’s Host”, and in the “The Word of the Destruction of the Russian Land” and many others, the representations of our ancestors about space
and time, the attitude to the past, the relationship between the People and Power.
Or cultural achievements. For example, the Russian passion for the construction and decoration of churches. This was not so much a manifestation of the piety of our ancestors, as much as a desire for the materialization of the beautiful. Both literature and temple construction came to Russia from Byzantium. But the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, erected under Yaroslav the Wise, has distinctive features that give it uniqueness and beauty. They allow us to talk about the birth of the Russian style in architecture, painting and stone construction. And the famous Tsar Cannon Andrei Chokhov seems to me to be a manifestation of Russian cosmism. However, as well as the extremely opposite phenomenon, set forth in the famous legend of Levsha, shod a flea.
The question of thinking and inspiration in the Russian worldview is, in my opinion, also the question of science and inspiration. After all, thinking is nothing more than the highest stage of human cognition, the process of reflecting objective reality. The thinking of man is of
a natural historical nature and is inextricably linked with the practical activities of people. The forms and laws of thinking are studied by logic, the mechanisms of its course – psychology and neurophysiology.
But even in science, Russian national thinking gives birth to something that corresponds to the entire Russian way of life. Suffice it to recall such names as Dezhnev, Khabarov, Atlasov, Krasheninnikov, Chelyuskin, the Laptev brothers, to make sure that already in the 17th-18th centuries the famous Russian striving for immense width, for conquering unknown spaces, for earth-writing was manifested. And at the same time – the western beginning, introduced by Peter I into Russian space. This he established a rigid beginning of power, form and order. The West had borrowed industry and the city – St. Petersburg. He was not the city that knew in Russia – Kiev, Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk, Vladimir, Ryazan, Moscow. It was something completely different. As in the Russian hut – a diminished model of the universe – the window is a symbolic link between its own and alien, hostile cosmos,
So Russia replaced Russia. Contemporary researcher of national images of the world G. Gachev writes: “Since Caesarean began power, law and form… came ready, as a result and result, from the West… the law, the apparatus and their Logos – the intellect are unwittingly dogmatic immovable form: theses, positions of weighty and tough: “it’s so necessary!” – and obedience to science and logic and ideology and the right faith: “be silent! Do not argue! “- for you have already judged people who know.”
In contrast to the Western, or rather, now Westernized, Russian mind is the Logos of Will-Freedom, the search for the path and meaning of life, Widely presented both in Russian folklore and in Russian classical literature. Moreover, Russian literature tries to combine these two principles in the Russian soul and Russian thinking, which was transformed by Peter. The same G. Gachev says: “If the formula of the logic of the West, Europe: IT IS THAT… then the Russian mind thinks in logic: NOT THAT, A…? ..” No, I’m not Byron, I’m different. .. “;” Not what you think, nature… “According to the same logic, events unfold in Leo Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace: not Napoleon, but Kutuzov, and the same principle is based on the work of F. Dostoevsky: not Rome and the West, but we: “In Western Europe there are firmly established rules and forms of life, supported at all costs for the sake of order, sometimes considered, despite their conventionality, “sacred.” And we, the Russians, “have no sacred things from a false predilection.” We love our holy things, but because only they are holy. “
Unfortunately, time does not have a back stroke. It is not in our power to reverse history in order to return to the true folk origins of life. We must take for granted the fact that Russia, who lived spiritually in a whiff, was transformed into Russia, combining in her spirituality thinking with traditional inspiration. And why change anything? After all, we would never be the same as there are, be something else. And besides, it was thanks to the birth of Russia that our Motherland became a great and powerful country, which is known all over the world and with which they are considered.