Knight-monastic orders

Crusaders with great difficulty succeeded in retaining power over the conquered population. The weakness of the positions of the Crusaders in the East prompted the papacy to create there knights-monastic orders. The knights entering them gave three monastic vows: poverty, obedience and celibacy. Their main task was to fight against the enemies of Christianity. To protect the Christian possessions of the Order built a network of powerful castles. Some of them have survived to this day. At the head of the orders were great masters, who obeyed only the Pope.

The first among knights-monastic orders is the Order of Hospitallers, or Ioannites. Shortly before the First Crusade, merchants from Amalfa built in Jerusalem a shelter for pilgrims, named in honor of St. John the Most Gracious. During and after the First Crusade, the wounded and sick knights were treated and treated there. Subsequently, the monks, nursing the wounded, began to take part in hostilities, and in 1113 the pope approved

the charter of the Order of Hospitallers. Its official name is “The Order of the Riders of St. John of Jerusalem.” Over the knight armor, the Johannites wore a red cloak with a white cross. Later the order began to be called Maltese. Now this order exists as a religious, political and charitable organization.

In the years 1118-1119. nine French knights established in Jerusalem the Order of the Templars, or the Templars. The residence of the order was in the place where, it was believed, was the legendary temple of the Israeli King Solomon. Hence the name of the order: from the French word temple, which in translation means the temple. Officially, the order was called “The Secret Chivalry of Christ and the Temple of Solomon.” A white cloak with a red cross sent a symbol of the Templars. The seal of the Order of the Knights Templar depicted two knights with spears in their hands, galloping on one horse. This should mean not only their brotherhood, but also poverty. However, the Templars quickly collected untold treasures. In the European rulers, the wealth of the order caused terrible envy and became the main reason for his death in the early 14th century.

In the years 1190-1191. there was a Teutonic, or German order. Its full name is “The Order of the House of St. Mary in Jerusalem.” He united mainly German knights. Its members considered their main task to spread the ideas of Christianity and fight against paganism. The Teutonic knights wore a white cloak with a black cross.

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Knight-monastic orders