Literacy in North-Eastern Russia in the XIII-XV centuries. Special distribution has not received. In the monasteries and at the prince’s court they copied books, which were beautifully decorated. Wrote on parchment or on birch bark – birch.
In the XIV century. in Russia there was a cheap paper.
Russian travelers described Constantinople, and the Tver merchant Athanasius Nikitin in his work “The Journey of the Three Seas” – India. Monks engaged in treatment, improving traditional medicine.
In oral folk art and monuments of written literature, the struggle against the Golden Horde yoke is vividly reflected. It was sung by the Bylins about Ilya Muromets, Dobryna, Vasily Kazimirovich and other Russian heroes. In the epics about Basil Buslaev
In Moscow, Tver, Novgorod and Pskov, a chronicle was kept. Among the chronicles of the XIV-XV centuries. the Troitsk annals are singled out, in which Moscow is pretentiously portrayed as the heiress of Kiev and Vladimir. There were historical stories about the Kulikovo battle. Their authors called on the princes to unite for a common confrontation with the enemies of Russia.
Read out in Rus “lives” princes, metropolitans, monks.
Russian architecture and art developed. In the largest cities began stone construction.
In Moscow, the middle of the XIV century. The wooden walls of the Kremlin were replaced with white stone, and a hundred years later they were built of red brick. Cathedrals were built in the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, near Zvenigorod. The Uspensky Cathedral grew on the territory of the Moscow Kremlin. It crowned the Grand Dukes, elected and buried the heads of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Church building caused the flowering of painting, especially icon painting. Several cathedrals painted by Andrei Rublev. His icon “Trinity” impresses with softness and lyricism. In Novgorod and Moscow, the icon painter Theophanes the Greek from Byzantium worked. Novgorod fresco painting of the XIV century. became an outstanding achievement of Russian painting.
Bylins – Russian epic songs, compiled about the events of the XI-XVI century.