(1825 – 1893)
Pleshcheev Alexey Nikolaevich (1825 – 1893), the poet. Born November 22 (December 4, N.) In Kostroma in a noble family, belonging to an ancient family. Children’s days were spent in Nizhny Novgorod, where the father, who died early, served. Under the guidance of the mother received a good home education. In 1844 in Sovremennik appeared the first poem Pleshcheyev (“Dream”, “Wanderer”, “At the Call of Friends”), thanks to which he began to perceive as a poet-fighter. In 1846 the first collection of poems was published, in which there was a poem “Forward without fear and doubt…” extremely popular among the Petrashevists. In 1849, along with other Petrashevists, he was sentenced to death, replaced by
In 1839, together with his mother, he moved to St. Petersburg, studied at the School of Guards Supporters and Cavalry Junkers, then at the University, from which he left in 1845. During his student years, he determined his interest in literature and theater, as well as in history and political economy. At the same time he approached F. Dostoyevsky, N. Speshnev and Petrashevsky, whose socialist ideas he shared.
In 1853 he took part in the assault of the fortress Ak-Mosque, for bravery was promoted to non-commissioned officers, in May 1856 was promoted to ensign and was able to move to civil service.
In 1857 he married, in 1859 after a long hassle, he got permission to live in Moscow, however, under “strict supervision”, “without a term.”
Actively cooperates with Sovremennik magazine, becomes an employee and shareholder of the newspaper Moskovsky Vestnik, is published in the Moscow Gazette, etc. Adheres to the Nekrasov school, writes poems about the people’s life (Boring Picture, Native, Beggars, ), on the life of urban bottoms – “On the street.” Impressed by the heavy fate of Chernyshevsky, who had been in exile in Siberia for five years, he wrote a poem “I’m
Creativity Pleshcheeva highly evaluated progressive criticism (M. Mikhailov, M. Saltykov-Shchedrin, etc.).
In 1870 – 80 Pleshcheev worked hard on translations: he translated T. Shevchenko, G. Heine, J. Byron, T. Moore, S. Petofi and other poets.
As a prose writer he acted back in 1847 with stories in the spirit of a natural school. Later, his “Tales and Stories” (1860) came out. At the end of his life he wrote monographs “Life and correspondence of Proudhon” (1873), “Life of Dickens” (1891), articles about Shakespeare, Sten-dale, etc.
Interest in the theater especially intensified in the 1860s, when Pleshcheev made friends with A. Ostrovsky and he himself began to write plays (“What often happens”, “Fellow travelers”, 1864).
In 1870 – 80 was the secretary of the editorial board of “Fatherland Notes”, after their closing – one of the editors of the “Northern Herald”.
In 1890 Pleshcheyev received a huge inheritance. This allowed him to get rid of the long struggle for existence. With this money, he helped many writers and contributed a considerable amount to the literary fund, having established the Belinsky and Chernyshevsky funds to encourage talented writers, supported the family of the sick G. Uspensky, Nadson and others, and financed the magazine “Russian Wealth”. The musicality of Pleshcheyev’s poems attracted the attention of many composers: Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Varlamov, Cui, Grechaninov, Glier, Ippolitov-Ivanov wrote songs and romances for his texts. A. Pleshcheev died on September 26 (October 8, current) in 1893 in Paris. He was buried in Moscow.
Pleshcheyev was the “godfather” of such novice writers as V. Garshin, A. Chekhov, A. Apukhtin, S. Nadson. A short biography from the book: Russian writers and poets. A short biographical dictionary. Moscow, 2000.