Only in African savannah can you see so many herbivorous giant animals. They all wander through savannahs in search of niches and water. They make especially significant transitions in the dry period. The African elephant is the largest of the modern land animals. The length of his body reaches 7 meters and the weight of adult males is 5-7 tons. Since herbaceous food is low-calorie, the elephant needs up to 100-300 kg per day. Every day the animal drinks 100-200 liters of water. Because of ivory, these giants were ruthlessly exterminated in the past. Now they need protection. Large herds are kept buffalo, a varietyRead More →

The occurrence of minerals is associated with the geological structure of the continent. On the shields, where the crystalline rocks of the foundation of the platform come to the surface, and deposits of ore minerals are found in the folding belts of different ages. The so-called “copper belt”, which extends through all of East Africa along the East African rift, is rich in metal ores. The ores were formed during the introduction of magma into the earth’s crust, which poured from the depths of the earth through the faults. The largest deposits of diamonds are concentrated in the south of the continent. The zone ofRead More →

1. Natural complexes are very diverse. Which of them are called natural zones? The natural complex of land, as well as the complex of the geographical envelope as a whole, is a heterogeneous formation and includes natural complexes of lower ranks that differ in the quality of the components of the complex of natural components. Such lower in rank are the natural zones. Having studied the map of natural zones, you can independently name these natural areas and trace the patterns of their location. 2. Highlight the main features of the concept of “natural zone”. Each natural zone differs from others in the quality ofRead More →

1. What features of the population were influenced by the Volga and its tributaries? At all times, the development of territories and resettlement went on the rivers. In the forest regions the rivers were the main transport arteries, and water supply is necessary for the management of any economy and life in general. Fisheries and the development of commerce were directly connected with the Volga, fair centers arose in the places where large tributaries flow into the confluence. As stated in the text of the paragraph, “each of the key points on the Volga caused the birth of a large city.” 2. What branches ofRead More →

1. What is the peculiarity of the geographic location of the Arctic Ocean? How does it affect its nature? The peculiarity of the geographic location of the Arctic Ocean lies in its name. This is the northernmost of the oceans. A significant part of it is covered with thick ice that does not melt throughout the year. The nature of the ocean is severe, the arctic climate hinders the development of living organisms. Representatives of the animal world are different kinds of fish and birds, walruses, seals, polar bears. The Arctic Ocean bathes the north of Eurasia and North America and connects with the PacificRead More →

Central Asia, remained for Europeans a continuous “white spot” in the middle of the XIX century. Petr Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Nikolai Przhevalsky, Pyotr Kozlov and others made a noteworthy contribution to the study of these inaccessible areas of the continent. The first scientific trip to the Tien Shan mountains was carried out in 1856-1857. Petr Semenov Tian-Shansky, who determined the structure of these mountains, opened a number of glaciers, described the plants and animals of this locality, and explored the amazing Issyk-Kul Lake. In the 1870-1885’s. Nikolai Przhevalsky led four expeditions to Central Asia. He first described the nature of these edges, created a valuable collection ofRead More →

The zone of evergreen hardwood forests and shrubs is located in the extreme north and south of Africa. In winter, the zone is under the influence of cyclones, bringing coolness and moisture. In summer cyclones are replaced by dry and hot air of the tropics. Here is a typical Mediterranean climate. Precipitation in these regions is sufficient for the development of plants and at the same time not very much, so as not to wash out nutrients from the soil. Therefore, the brown soils of this zone are quite fertile, since they contain a lot of humus. Plants have small, hard, yellow leaves, so theyRead More →

The area is 17.8 million km2. The population is -370 million people. The length of the coastline is 26 thousand km. The highest point above sea level is in Aconcagua. The lowest point from the sea level is the Valdez Peninsula. The longest river is the Amazon from Ucayali. The largest lake is Maracaibo. The largest island is Tierra del Fuego. On a map, South America resembles a huge triangle, most of which is located in the Southern Hemisphere. It is the wettest continent of the Earth, different, but also similar to Africa and Australia. This is the mainland, where the highest volcano of theRead More →

1. What are the main properties of the atmosphere? The atmosphere is a necessary condition for the birth and existence of life on Earth. The air from which the atmosphere consists is necessary for breathing all living things. A person can not help breathing air even for 1 minute, and only prolonged workouts can extend this time to several minutes. After that, if breathing is not resumed, a person will die from suffocation. It is no accident that there is such an expression: “it is necessary as air”. Air for living beings is much more important than water and food, although it is impossible toRead More →

The lithosphere is the hard shell of the Earth, consisting of the earth’s crust and the upper layer of the mantle. Forty years ago, a scientific theory of lithospheric plates arose. According to this theory, the lithosphere is broken by giant cracks into separate blocks – lithospheric plates. The boundaries of the plates pass along the mid-ocean ridges of the ocean floor or deep-sea gutters, and on land – along mountain belts, such as the Himalayas, Carpathians, Alps, Andes. Scientists distinguish 7 large plates and about 20 smaller ones. The lithospheric plates very slowly move along the soft layer of the mantle – the asthenosphereRead More →

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