1. In what direction is the Great Caucasus stretching? The Great Caucasus stretches in a sublatitudinal direction from the west-north-west to the east-south-east. 2. Which of the three parts is divided into the Main Caucasian Range? Several mountain ranges are distinguished in the Caucasus mountains. The axial part of the Caucasus is the Main and Side Ridges. They are fringed from the north by lower chains – the Rocky and Grassy ridges. Along the stretch of the Caucasian ridge, four different segments are usually distinguished, they are called segments. The highest is the Central Caucasus, located between Elbrus and Kazbek. Here there are all fiveRead More →


1. How has Russia’s ability to trade with other countries changed during the reign of Peter I? Before the era of Peter I, Russia’s sphere of international activity was limited to Turkey and the Polish-Lithuanian state. When in the beginning of the XVIII century. the Russian fleet first appeared on the Baltic, and then on the Black Sea, Russia became one of the main participants in European politics and trade. In the export of Russia, except fur, there were industrial goods, iron, canvas. Imports ceased to consist exclusively of weapons, fabrics, clothing and luxury goods, the import of industrial equipment began. 2. Assess the situationRead More →

1. Ob Obye is often figuratively called “Russian Kuwait”. What gives grounds for such a comparison? Do you agree with this statement? The basis for comparison is oil deposits. However, this comparison is not entirely accurate. Small Kuwait has almost twice as much oil reserves as Russia, -13.3 billion tons and 6.7 billion tons, respectively. True, sometimes in the Russian press there are significantly higher estimates of Russian oil reserves -20 and even 27 billion tons. Kuwait literally floats on an oil cushion, and this oil can flow and its cost is several times lower than Russia’s. 2. Oil is an exhaustible natural resource. WhatRead More →

1. Do you think that the ratio of electricity produced at stations of different types will change in the future? The production of electricity at stations of different types in Russia is similar to the world average. In the world as a whole, 64% are generated by thermal power plants, 18% by hydroelectric power stations and 18% by nuclear power plants. In Russia, over the past twenty years, there has been a tendency to reduce the share of TPPs and increase the role of HPPs and nuclear power plants. In the future, more and more importance will be given to alternative sources – solar, wind,Read More →

The ocean area is 14.1 million km2. The maximum depth is 5527 m. Quantity is fashion -11. The largest seas are the Greenland, Norwegian, Kara, and Beaufort. The largest bay is the Hudson. The largest islands and groups of islands are Greenland, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya. The most powerful currents are Norvazhskoye, Spitsbergen; East Greenland. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean of the Earth. Until the early XX century. some ocean scientists even referred it to the inner seas and called the Arctic Sea. It is the smallest and coldest ocean, its considerable areas are covered with solid ice. The nameRead More →

Since the equator crosses Africa almost in the middle, the climatic zones are repeated on its territory twice: to the north and south from the equator. The equatorial climate belt covers the coast of the Gulf of Guinea and the basin of the Congo. It is also called the “eternal summer” belt. Here constantly high temperature and humidity. In the morning it’s sunny. During the day, heated and saturated with moisture, air rises upward, powerful rain clouds are formed. After noon, a downpour starts with a thunderstorm. Here, in fact, the rain pours like a bucket, because the equatorial shower is a continuous wall ofRead More →

1. Look at the physical map and find the physical and geographical objects that determine the natural appearance of the area. The image of the district is defined by three rivers, two of which gave the name to the district, and the third is the one located between them – Vetluga. On the territory of the district there are two reservoirs – Gorkovskoye and Cheboksarskoye. 2. Some geographers refer Nizhny Novgorod to the Center, the Kirov region to the North, and Mordovia to Chernozem. Explain why. The industrial and commercial Nizhny Novgorod region with such engineering giants as the Gorky Automobile Plant, the Krasnoye SormovoRead More →

The settlement of Australia began about 40 thousand years ago by people from Southeast Asia. The indigenous population of Australia belongs to the Australoid branch of the equatorial race, the characteristic features of which are dark brown skin color, wavy hair, flat nose. The Aboriginal Australians lived in the eastern part of the continent until the arrival of the Europeans, their total number was about 300 thousand people. They hunted animals and collected wild plants, led a nomadic way of life. The Australian Aborigines retained their rather peculiar culture, especially in painting and music. Their paintings are exhibited in the National Gallery of Australia, AboriginalRead More →

1. Using the map “Peoples of Russia”, determine in which territories of the Federation subjects live and to which language families and groups the indigenous peoples of Siberia are not included in the number of “title”: Shorians, Selkups, Nganasans, Chum. 2. Find out which of the peoples of Siberia Buddhism profess and why. In Siberia Buddhism is practiced by Tuvans and Buryats. These peoples live in the south of Siberia along the border with Mongolia. Buddhism – the oldest world religion, originated in ancient India in the VI-V centuries. BC. e. In the middle of the VII century. Buddhism spreads from India to Tibet, whereRead More →

Emerald greenery among the blue expanses of the Pacific Ocean are the islands of Oceania. Some scholars even consider this vast space as a separate part of the world. Exotic nature, mild, favorable climate for living, goodwill of the population contribute to the development of international tourism. High, forested mountains on some islands, white coral sand on others amaze with their grandeur and beauty. Most of the islands are grouped into archipelagos. The history of discovery and exploration of Oceania began with the first round-the-world trip of Fernand Magellan. Many islands were discovered and mapped by the English navigator James Cook. A great contribution toRead More →

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