Euripides (also Euripides, Greek, Greek, Euripides, 480-406 BC) is an ancient Greek playwright, a representative of the new Attic tragedy, in which psychology predominates over the idea of divine rock.
Earlier Euripides lived a little-known playwright with the same name, as reported in the Byzantine dictionary of the Court.
The great playwright was born in Salamis, on the day of the famous victory of the Greeks over the Persians in the sea battle, September 23, 480 BC. e., from Myssarha and Clayto. Parents were on Salamis among other Athenians who fled from the army of the Persian king Xerxes. The exact binding of the birth day of Euripides to victory is an embellishment, which is often found in the stories of ancient authors about the great. So the Court reports that
Euripides’ father was a respected and apparently rich man, Clayto’s mother was engaged in the sale of vegetables. As a child, Euripides seriously engaged in gymnastics, even won competitions among boys and wanted to get to the Olympics, but was rejected by his youth. Then I was engaged in drawing, without much, however, success. Then he began to take lessons in oratory and literature from Prodik and Anaxagoras and the lessons of philosophy from Socrates. Euripides collected books in the library, and soon he began to write. The first play, “Peliade”, appeared on stage in 455 BC. E., but then the author did not win because of an argument with the judges. The first prize for skill Euripides won in 441 BC. e. and since then, until his death, he created his creations. The public activity of the playwright was manifested in the fact that he participated in the embassy in Syracuse in Sicily,
The family life of Euripides was unsuccessful. From the first wife, Chliorina, had 3 sons, but divorced her because of her adultery, writing a play “Hippolytus”, where he ridiculed sexual relations. The second wife, Melitta, was no better than the first. Euripides won the glory of the misogynist, which gave reason to joke over him to the master of the comedy Aristophanes. In 408 BC. e. the great playwright decided to leave Athens, accepting the invitation of the Macedonian king Archelaus. It is not known exactly what influenced the decision of Euripides. Historians are inclined to think that the main reason was, if not baiting, the offense of a vulnerable creative person to fellow citizens for non-recognition of merit. The fact is that out of 92 plays (75 according to another source) only 4 were awarded with prizes in theatrical competitions during the author’s life, and one play posthumously. The popularity of the playwright in the people speaks the story of Plutarch about the terrible defeat of the Athenians in Sicily in 413 BC. e.:
“They [the Athenians] were sold into slavery and put a stamp on their foreheads in the form of a horse.” Yes, there were those who, in addition to captivity, were tolerated also by this, but even at such an extreme they benefited from self-respect and self-control. either left them free or highly appreciated, and some saved Euripides. The fact is that the Sicilians, probably more than all Greeks living outside of Attica, honored the talent of Euripides. When the visitors delivered them small excerpts from his works, the Sicilians with pleasure they recounted and repeated each other. It is said that at that time many of those who returned home safely greeted Euripides and told him how they had been given freedom by teaching the master what was left in the memory of his poems or how, after wandering after the battle,
Archelaus showed honor and demonstrative respect to the famous guest to such an extent that the signs of location caused the death of the king himself. Aristotle in the work “Politics” informs about a certain Dekamnieh who was given to scourge Euripides for the offense, and this Dekamhny in revenge organized a conspiracy, as a result of which Archelaus was killed. This happened later than the death of Euripides himself in 406 BC. e. The death of such a remarkable personality gave rise to the legends set forth in the Court:
Euripides ended his life as a result of the conspiracy of Arridea from Macedonia and Crataeus of Thessaly, poets jealous of Euripides, who bribed a courtier named Lysimachus in 10 minutes, so that he could take the king’s beagles down to Euripides, followed by others. Euripides was not ripped apart by dogs, but by women, when he rushed to a meeting with Crater, the young lover of Archelaus at night, while others assert that he was going to meet with Nicodemus, Aref’s wife. ”
The version about women is a rough joke with a hint of Euripides’ play “Bacchante”, where distraught women ripped the king. About the love of the aged writer to the young men, Plutarch reports in the “Quotes.” The modern version is more mundane – the body of the 75-year-old Euripides simply could not stand the harsh winter in Macedonia.
Athenians asked permission to bury the playwright in their hometown, but Archelaus wished to leave the grave of Euripides in his capital, Pellet. Sophocles, learning about the death of the playwright, made the actors play a play with uncovered heads. Athens placed in the theater a statue of Euripides, giving him honors after death. Plutarch gave the legend: the tomb of Euripides was struck by lightning, a great sign that only Lycurgus was awarded from the famous people.