The novel of Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky “Crime and Punishment” was written in 1866. The idea of the work appeared in the writer as far back as 1859, when he was serving a sentence in penal servitude. Initially, Dostoevsky was going to write the novel “Crime and Punishment” in the form of a confession, but in the process of work the original idea gradually changed and, describing his new work to the editor of the magazine “Russian Herald”, the author describes the novel as a “psychological record of one work”.
“Crime and Punishment” refers to the literary flow of realism, written in the genre of the philosophical and psychological polyphonic novel, as the ideas of the heroes in the work are equal to each other, and the author stands next to the characters, not over them.
Rodion Raskolnikov is a poor student, a young, proud, disinterested youth. He “was remarkably good with
himself, with beautiful dark eyes, dark-Russian, taller than average, thin and slender.”
Sonia Marmeladova is Marmeladov’s own daughter, a drunkard, a former titular counselor. “A girl of small stature, about eighteen, thin, but pretty pretty blonde, with wonderful blue eyes.”
Pyotr Petrovich Luzhin – Duni’s fiancé, calculating, “stiff, sullen, with a cautious and pugnacious physiognomy” is forty-five years old.
Arkady Ivanovich Svidrigailov – a gambler with a contradictory character, crossed several lives. “A man of about fifty, taller than average, burly.”
Porfiry Petrovich – bailiff of investigative cases, who was engaged in the case of the murder of an old woman-interest. “A man of about thirty-five, lower than average, full and even with a belly, shaven, without a mustache and without whiskers.” A clever man, a “skeptic, a cynic.”
Razumihin is a student, a friend of Rodion. A very clever young man, though sometimes rustic, “his appearance was expressive – tall, thin, always
badly shaven, black-haired. Sometimes he scolded and was known for the strong man.”
Dunya Raskolnikova – Raskolnikov’s sister, “firm, reasonable, patient and generous, though with an ardent heart” girl. “She was dark-blond, slightly lighter than her brother’s, eyes almost black, sparkling, proud and at the same time, sometimes, minutes, unusually good.”
Alena Ivanovna is an old woman, a percentage-bearer, whom Raskolnikov killed.
Lizaveta Ivanovna is the sister of an old woman, a high-ranking, clumsy, timid and humble girl, almost an idiot, thirty-five years old, who was in complete slavery to her sister, who worked for her day and night, trembling before her and suffering even beatings from her “.
Semen Zakharovich Marmeladov – father of Sonya, a drunkard, “a man of about fifty years, of medium height and dense build, with graying and with a large bald head.”
Ekaterina Ivanovna Marmeladova is a woman of noble birth, stepmother of Sonya, wife of Marmeladov. “A terribly thin woman, thin, pretty tall and slim, with beautiful dark-blond hair.”
Pulcheria Alexandrovna Raskolnikova is Rodion’s mother, a woman of forty-three.
Zosimov is a doctor, a friend of Raskolnikov, 27 years old.
Zametov is a clerk in the police station.
Nastasya is the cook of the hostess, who rented Raskolnikov’s room.
Lebezyatnikov – neighbor Luzhin around the room.
Mykola – a dyer who confessed to killing an old woman
Marfa Petrovna Svidrigailova – Svidrigailov’s wife.
Polochka, Lenya, Kolya are the children of Katerina Ivanovna.
The protagonist of the novel, Rodion Raskolnikov, is in a position bordering on poverty, he did not eat anything for the second day and owes the owner of the apartment a decent amount for rent. The young man goes to the old woman-interest Alena Ivanovna, pondering on the way a “mysterious” affair, thoughts about which disturbed him a long time – the hero was going to kill. Arriving at Alena Ivanovna, Raskolnikov pawns a silver watch, while carefully examining the situation of her apartment. Leaving, Rodion promises to return soon, to lay a silver cigarette.
Entering the tavern, Raskolnikov meets there with the titular counselor Marmeladov. Learning that Rodion is a student, the intoxicated interlocutor starts to talk about poverty, saying that “poverty is not a vice, it’s true, poverty is a vice-with,” and tells Rodion about his family. His wife, Katerina Ivanovna, having three children in her arms, came out for him from despair, although she was intelligent and educated. But Marmeladov drinks all the money, taking the last of the house. To somehow provide for the family, his daughter, Sonya Marmeladova had to go to the panel.
Raskolnikov decided to spend drunken Marmeladov home, since he was already bad on his feet. The student was struck by the poverty of their homes. Katerina Ivanovna begins to scold her husband, who again drank the last money and Raskolnikov, not wanting to get involved in a quarrel, left, for reasons that he did not understand for himself, leaving a small change on the windowsill.
Raskolnikov lived in a small room with a very low ceiling: “It was a tiny cage, six foot long.” The room had three old chairs, a table, a large sofa in tatters and a small table.
Rodion receives a letter from the mother of Pulcheria Raskolnikova. The woman wrote that his sister Dunya was slandered by the Svidrigailovs, in whose house the girl worked as a governess. Svidrigailov showed her unequivocal signs of attention. Learning of this, Marfa Petrovna, his wife, and began to insult and humiliate Dunya. In addition, a forty-five-year-old counselor, Petr Petrovich Luzhin, was wooing Dunya with a small capital. Mother writes that soon she and her sister will come to St. Petersburg, as Luzhin wants to arrange a wedding as soon as possible.
Raskolnikov greatly alarmed his mother’s letter. The young man understands that his family agreed to the marriage of Luzhin and Duni, only to end poverty, but the young man is against this marriage. Raskolnikov understands that he can not forbid Duna to marry Luzhin. And Rodin again began to think about the thought that had tormented him for a long time.
Walking along the Islands, Raskolnikov decided to have a bite a piece of pie and vodka. The young man had not drunk for a long time, therefore almost at once became intoxicated and, not having reached home, fell asleep in the bushes. He had a terrible dream: an episode from childhood, in which the peasants hammered an old horse. Little Rodion can not do anything, he runs up to the dead horse, kisses her face and, angry, rushes at the man with his fists.
Having woken up, Raskolnikov again reflects on the murder of the interest-bearing woman and doubts that she will be able to make up her mind. Passing by the bazaar on Senna, the young man saw the old woman’s sister – Lizaveta. From the conversation Lizaveta with the traffickers, Raskolnikov learns that the interest-holder will be tomorrow at seven in the evening alone at home. The young man understands that now “everything has been decided definitively.”
Raskolnikov accidentally hears a conversation between a student and an officer about the fact that an old woman-interest woman is not worth living, and if she is killed, many of her indigent young people could be helped with her money. Rodion was very excited about what she had heard.
Arriving home, Raskolnikov, being in a state close to delirium, begins to prepare for the murder. The young man sewed on the inside of the coat under the left armpit a loop for the ax so that, when the coat was worn, the ax was not visible. Then he took out a “bookmark” hidden in the crevice between the sofa and the floor-a plaque as big as a cigarette case, wrapped in paper and bandaged with a ribbon, which the old woman was going to give to distract attention. Having finished the preparations, Rodion stole an ax in the janitor’s and went to the old woman.
Having come to the interest-bearing, Rodion worried that the old woman would notice his excitement and not let her in, but she took a “mortgage”, believing that it was a cigarette case, and was trying to untie the ribbon. The young man, realizing that he can not wait, gets an ax and puts it on his head with his butt, the old woman settles, Raskolnikov beats her a second time, after which she realizes that she is already dead.
Raskolnikov takes out the keys from the old woman’s pocket and goes to her room. Only he found the wealth of the interest-bearer in a large package and started stuffing pockets of his coat and trousers with them, as Lizaveta unexpectedly returned. In confusion, the hero kills the sister of the old woman. He embraces horror, but gradually the hero takes himself in hand, washes blood from his hands, an ax and boots. Raskolnikov already wanted to leave, but then he heard steps on the stairs: the clients came to the old woman. Waiting until they leave, Rodion himself quickly leaves the apartment of the interest-bearer. Returning home, the young man returns the ax and, going into his room, without undressing fell into oblivion on the bed.
Raskolnikov slept until three in the afternoon. When he wakes up, the hero remembers what he did. He looks at the clothes in horror, checking to see if there are any signs of blood left on her. Immediately finds the valuables taken from the interest-bearer, which he completely forgot and hides them in a corner of the room, in a hole under the wallpaper.
Nastasya comes to Rodion. She brought him a quarterly agenda: the hero had to report to the police station. Rodion is nervous, but in the station it turns out that he only needs to write a receipt with an obligation to pay the debt to the landlady.
Already intending to leave the site, Rodion accidentally hears the conversation of policemen about the murder of Alena Ivanovna and falls into a faint. Everyone decides that Raskolnikov is sick and released home.
Fearing a search, Rodion hides the values of the old woman under a stone in a deserted courtyard surrounded by blind walls.
On his return home, Raskolnikov probed for several days, and when he recovered he saw Razumikhin and Nastasya next to him. The young man receives a money transfer from his mother who sent money to pay for housing. Dmitry tells a friend that while he was sick, the police officer Zametov came to Rodion several times and asked about his things.
Raskolnikov is approached by another comrade, a medical student, Zosimov. He starts a conversation about the murder of Alena Ivanovna and her sister Lizaveta, telling that many people are suspected of the crime, including the dyer Mikola, but the police do not have reliable clues yet.
Pyotr Petrovich Luzhin comes to Raskolnikov. Raskolnikov rebukes a man that he is going to marry Duna only so that the girl for the rest of her life was grateful for delivering her family from poverty. Luzhin tries to deny this. The angry Raskolnikov expels him.
Following him go and friends Raskolnikov. Razumikhin worries about a friend, believing that “he has something on his mind!” Something motionless, pulling. “
Accidentally going into the tavern “Crystal Palace” Raskolnikov meets there Zametova. Discussing with him the case of the murder of the old woman, Rodion expresses his opinion about how he would act on the place of the murderer. The student asks what Zametov would do if he were a murderer and almost directly says that he killed an old woman. Zametov decides that Rodion is insane and does not believe in his guilt.
Walking around the city, Raskolnikov decides to drown, but, having changed his mind, goes to the house of the murdered old woman, a penniless, in a half-bred. There is a repair and the student talks to the workers about the crime that happened, everyone thinks he is crazy.
On the way to Razumikhin Raskolnikov sees a crowd gathered around the accidentally knocked down, completely drunk Marmeladov. The victim is taken home, he is in serious condition.
Before death, Marmeladov asks Sonya for forgiveness and dies with her daughter in her arms. Raskolnikov gives all his money to Marmeladov’s funeral.
Rodion feels that he is recovering and goes to visit Razumikhin. Dmitry escorts him home. Approaching the house, Raskolnikov, the students see a light in his windows. When friends climbed into the room, it turned out that the mother and sister had come to Rodion. Seeing his relatives, Raskolnikov fainted.
Coming to himself, Rodion asks his relatives not to worry. Talking with his sister about Luzhin, Raskolnikov demands that the girl deny him. Pulcheria Aleksandrovna wants to stay with her son, but Razumikhin persuades the women to return to the hotel.
Rudomikhin really liked Dunya, he was attracted to her beauty: in her appearance, strength and self-confidence combined with gentleness and grace.
In the morning Razumikhin visits the mother and sister of Raskolnikov. Discussing Luzhin, Pulcheria Aleksandrovna shares with Dmitry that in the morning they received a letter from Petr Petrovich. Luzhin writes that he wants to visit them, but he asks that Rodion not be present during their meeting. Mother and Dunya go to Raskolnikov.
Raskolnikov feels better. The student tells his mother and sister how yesterday he gave all his money for a funeral to a poor family. Raskolnikov notices that his family is afraid.
There comes a conversation about Luzhin. Rodion is unhappy that Peter Petrovich does not show proper attention to the bride. Young people talk about a letter from Petr Petrovich, he is ready to do as his relatives think. Dunya believes that Rodion must certainly be present during Luzhin’s visit.
Sonia came to Raskolnikov with an invitation to Marmeladov’s funeral. Despite the fact that the reputation of the girl does not allow her to communicate with her on an equal footing with Rodion’s mother and sister, the young man represents her close. As she was leaving, Dounia bowed to Sonya, which greatly embarrassed the girl.
When Sonia was going home, she was pursued by a stranger who turned out to be her neighbor.
Raskolnikov and Razumikhin go to Porfiry, since Rodion asked a friend to introduce him to the investigator. Raskolnikov turns to Porfiry for the question of how to claim his right to the things he laid down for the old woman. The investigator says that he needs to file an advertisement with the police, and that his belongings have not disappeared, as he remembers them among those seized by the investigation.
Discussing with Porfiry the murder of the interest-bearing woman, the young man understands that he is also suspected. Porphyry recalls Raskolnikov’s article. In it, Rodion sets out his own theory that people are divided into “ordinary” and “extraordinary”: “ordinary people must live in obedience and do not have the right to transgress the law.” “And the extraordinary have the right to do all sorts of crimes and violate the law in every way, in fact because they are extraordinary. “Porfiry asks Raskolnikov whether he considers himself such an” extraordinary “person and whether he is able to kill or rob, Raskolnikov responds that” it can very well be. “
Clarifying the details of the case, the investigator asks Raskolnikov whether he saw, for example, during the last visit to the interest-holder, the dyers. Slowly answering, the young man says he did not see. Immediately Razumikhin is responsible for a friend that he was with the old woman three days before the murder, when the dyers were not there, because they worked on the day of the murder. Students leave from Porphyry.
A stranger was waiting outside Rodion’s house, who called Rodion a murderer and, not wishing to explain himself, was leaving.
Raskolnikov’s house was again beginning to be tormented by a fever. A young man dreamed of this stranger, who beckoned him to the apartment of the old woman. Rodion struck Alena Ivanovna on the head with an ax, but she laughs. The student tries to escape, but sees around the crowd condemning him. Rodion wakes up.
Svidrigailov comes to Raskolnikov.
Raskolnikov is not happy with Svidrigailov’s arrival, because Dunya’s reputation has seriously deteriorated because of him. Arkady Ivanovich expresses the opinion that he and Rodion are very similar: “one field of berries”. Svidrigailov tries to persuade Raskolnikov to arrange a meeting with Dunya, since his wife left the girl three thousand, and he himself would like to give Dunya ten thousand for all the troubles caused to her. Rodion refuses to arrange their meeting.
In the evening, Raskolnikov and Razumikhin visit the mother and sister of Rodion. Luzhin is outraged that the women did not consider his request, and does not want to discuss the details of the wedding at Raskolnikov. Luzhin reminds Dunya of the distressing situation of her family, blaming the girl for not realizing her happiness. Dunya says that he can not choose between a brother and a groom. Luzhin gets angry, they quarrel, and the girl asks Peter Petrovich to leave.
Raskolnikov comes to Sonya. “Sonina’s room seemed like a barn, looked like a very irregular quadrangle, and this gave it something ugly.” During the conversation, the young man asks what will happen to the girl, because now she is almost a crazy mother, brother and sister. Sonia says that she can not leave them, because without her they will simply die of hunger. Raskolnikov bows to Sonya at her feet, the girl thinks that the young man is mad, but Rodion explains his act: “I did not bow to you, I bowed to all human suffering.”
Rodion pays attention to the New Testament lying on the table. Raskolnikov asks him to read a chapter on the resurrection of Lazarus: “The cinder has long been extinguished in a crooked candlestick, dimly illuminating in this beggarly room a murderer and a harlot who have strangely perplexed reading an eternal book.” Leaving, Rodion promises to come the next day and tell Sonya who killed Lizaveta.
The whole conversation was heard by Svidrigailov, who is in the next room.
The next day Raskolnikov comes to Porfiry Petrovich with a request to return his things to him. The investigator again tries to check the young man. Unable to withstand, Rodion, greatly nervous, asks Porfiry finally to recognize him guilty or innocent of the murder of the old woman. However, the investigator leaves the answer, saying that there is a surprise in the next room, but does not tell the young man which one.
Unexpectedly for Raskolnikov and Porphyry lead dyer Mikola, who for all confesses to the murder of Alena Ivanovna. Raskolnikov returns home and on the threshold of his apartment meets that mysterious bourgeois who called him a murderer. The man apologizes for his words: as it turned out, he was the prepared Porfiry “surprise” and now repented of his mistake. Rodion feels calmer.
Luzhin believes that in their quarrel with Dunya, only Raskolnikov is to blame. Pyotr Petrovich thinks that he did not give Raskolnikov the money in vain before the wedding: this would solve many problems. Wanting to take revenge on Rodion, Luzhin asks his roommate Lebeziatnikov, who is well acquainted with Sonia, to call the girl to him. Petr Petrovich apologizes to Sonya that he can not attend the funeral, and gives her ten rubles. Lebezyatnikov remarks that Luzhin has something in mind, but does not yet understand what exactly.
Katerina Ivanovna arranged a good wake for her husband, but many of the guests did not come. Raskolnikov was present here. Ekaterina Ivanovna starts to quarrel with the mistress of the apartment Amalia Ivanovna due to the fact that she invited someone horrible, and not a “better people and friends of the deceased”. During their quarrel comes Petr Petrovich.
Luzhin reports that Sonya stole a hundred rubles from him and his neighbor Lebeziatnikov is a witness to this. The girl is first lost, but quickly begins to deny her guilt and gives Pyotr Petrovich ten rubles. Not believing in the guilt of the girl, Katerina Ivanovna begins with all the pockets of her daughter and a hundred-ruble note falls out. Lebezyatnikov understands that Luzhin got him into an embarrassing situation and tells the audience that he remembered how Peter Petrovich himself slipped Sonya money. Raskolnikov defends Sonia. Luzhin screams and gets angry, promises to call the police. Amalia Ivanovna expels Katerina Ivanovna with the children from the apartment.
Raskolnikov goes to Sonya, thinking about whether to tell the girl who killed Lizaveta. The young man understands that he must tell everything. Tormenting, Rodion tells the girl that he knows the killer and that he killed Lizaveta unintentionally. Sonya understands everything and, sympathizing with Raskolnikov, says that he is not more unfortunate than “no one now in the whole world.” She is ready to follow him even to hard labor. Sonia asks Rodion why he went to kill, even if he did not take the stolen goods, to which the young man responds that he wanted to become Napoleon: “I wanted to dare and killed… I just wanted to dare, Sonya, that’s the whole reason!”. “I had another to learn Whether I can cross or not be able to! I’m a shaking creature or have the right.”
Sonia says that he needs to go and confess what he did, then his god will forgive and “send life back”.
Lebezyatnikov comes to Sonia and says that Katerina Ivanovna has gone mad: a woman made children beg, walks along the street, hits a frying pan and makes children sing and dance. Katerina Ivanovna is taken to a room in Sonia, where a woman dies.
Svidrigailov approached Sonya Rodion. Arkady Ivanovich says that he will pay for the funeral of Katerina Ivanovna, arrange the children in orphanages and take care of the fate of Sonya, asking him to tell Dunya that he will spend the ten thousand that he wanted to give to her. On the question of Rodion, why Arkady Ivanovich has become so generous, Svidrigailov responds that he heard through the wall all their conversations with Sonya.
The funeral of Katerina Ivanovna. Razumikhin tells Rodion that Pulcheria Aleksandrovna was ill.
Porfiry Petrovich comes to Raskolnikov. The investigator states that he suspects Rodion of the murder. He advises the young man to come to the station with confession, giving two days for reflection. Nevertheless, there is no evidence against Raskolnikov, and he has not yet been recognized in the murder.
Raskolnikov understands that he needs to talk with Svidrigailov: “in this man there was some power over him.” Rodion meets Arkady Ivanovich in a tavern. Svidrigailov tells the young man about his relationship with his late wife and about the fact that he was very much in love with Dunya, but now he has a bride.
Svidrigailov leaves the tavern, then in secret from Raskolnikov meets with Dunya. Arkady Ivanovich insists that the girl come to his apartment. Svidrigailov tells Dunia about the heard conversation between Sonya and Rodion. The man promises to save Raskolnikov in exchange for the location and love of Dunya. The girl wants to leave, but the door is locked. Dunya takes out his concealed revolver, shoots at the man several times, but does not hit, and asks to release her. Svidrigailov gives Dunya the key. The girl, leaving the weapon, leaves.
All evening Svidrigailov spends on taverns. Returning home, the man went to Sonia. Arkady Ivanovich tells her that, perhaps, he will go to America. The girl thanks him for arranging the funeral and helping the orphans. A man gives her three thousand rubles so she can live a normal life. The girl initially refuses, but Svidrigailov says that she knows that she is ready to go to Rodion for hard labor and she will definitely need money.
Svidrigailov wanders into the backwoods of the city, where he stops at a hotel. At night, he dreams of a teenage girl who died because of him, drowning after a man broke her heart. Coming out at dawn on the street, Svidrigailov shot himself in the head from Dunya’s revolver.
Raskolnikov bids farewell to his sister and mother. The young man tells his family that he is going to confess to the murder of the old woman, promises to start a new life. Rodion regrets that he could not cross the coveted threshold of his own theory and his conscience.
Raskolnikov goes to Sonia. The girl puts a cypress cross on him, advising him to go to the intersection, kiss the ground and say aloud, “I’m a murderer.” Rodion does as Sonya said, after which she goes to the police station and confesses to the murder of the old woman and her sister. There, the young man learns about the suicide of Svidrigailov.
Rodion is sentenced to eight years of hard labor in Siberia. Pulcheria Aleksandrovna fell ill at the beginning of the process, and Dunya and Razumikhin took her away from St. Petersburg. The woman comes up with a story about the fact that Raskolnikov has left and lives with this invention.
Sonia is leaving behind a party of prisoners, in which Raskolnikov was sent to penal servitude. Dunya and Razumihin got married, both plan to move to Siberia in five years. After a while, Pulcheria Alexandrovna dies of grief for her son. Sonia regularly writes to Rodion’s relatives about his life in hard labor.
In hard labor, Rodion could not find a common language with other prisoners: he was not liked and avoided all, considering atheist. The young man reflects on his fate, he is ashamed that he so silly and foolishly ruined his life. Svidrigailov, who managed to commit suicide, seems to the young man stronger in spirit than himself.
Sonya, who came to Rodion, all the prisoners fell in love, at the meeting they took off her hats. The girl gave them money and things from loved ones.
Raskolnikov fell ill, lies in the hospital, recovering heavily and slowly. Sonia regularly visited him and one day Rodion, crying, rushed to her feet and began to embrace the girl’s knees. Sonia at first was frightened, but after realized that “he loves, infinitely loves her.” “They were resurrected by love, the heart of one contained endless sources of life for the heart of another”
In the novel “Crime and Punishment” Dostoevsky examines issues of human morality, virtue and human rights to kill one’s neighbor. On the example of the protagonist, the author shows that any crime is impossible without punishment, a student of Raskolnikov, who, wishing to become as great a person as his idol Napoleon, kills an old woman as a percentage-bearer, but can not endure moral torment after the deed and himself confesses in his fault. In the novel, Dostoevsky emphasizes that even the greatest goals and ideas are not worth human life.
We recommend not only to read a brief retelling of “Crime and Punishment” by chapters, but also to evaluate the brilliant novel completely.