Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky is a Russian novelist, thinker and publicist, who in his work raised the most important problems of spiritual life and extended the boundaries of the realistic image of man. Dostoevsky focused on the struggle between “God and the devil” in the human soul, for the artistic recreation of which he developed new ways of psychological analysis. The writer himself called his creative manner “fantastic realism.”
Life of F. Dostoevsky in dates and facts
November 11, 1821 – was born in Moscow in the family of a doctor.
1837 – entered the St. Petersburg Engineering College. In the same year, the writer’s mother died, and after another two years, under mysterious circumstances, his father passed away. After their death, Dostoevsky refused the right to inherit land and serfs.
1843 – completed a full course of studies in a higher officer class and was enlisted in the engineering building at
the St. Petersburg Engineering Team, but the following year he left military service and devoted himself to literary creation.
1845 – debuted the novel “Poor People”, which was highly appreciated in literary circles.
1846 – met with M. Petrashevsky, a follower of the teachings of the French philosopher utopian S. Fourier, and joined the secret political circle, whose members set themselves the goal of implementing a “coup in Russia” and were engaged in the dissemination of illegal propaganda literature.
April 23, 1849 – for participation in the activities of the circle Dostoevsky was arrested and sentenced to be shot as “one of the most important” conspirators.
December 22, 1849 – in St. Petersburg, the staged procedure for replacing the execution of “rebels” with a less severe sentence was carried out: a minute before the shooting, the writer and his comrades were told that they had been sentenced to four years of hard labor with the further serving of the soldiers’ service. The period of punishment, which lasted ten
years, enriched Dostoevsky with an invaluable spiritual and life experience, which later fed on all of his work. Immediate impressions of his stay in penal servitude were reflected in his famous “Notes from the Dead House.”
1857 – the wedding of F. Dostoevsky and M. Isayeva took place. This marriage was unhappy and ended with the death of Isaev in 1864.
1859 – thanks to the efforts of friends, the writer got the opportunity to return to St. Petersburg and again engage in literary activity.
The first half of the 1860s – together with his brother Mikhail, he published the magazines “Time” and “Epoch”. Journalistic work not only gave impetus to the development of the journalistic talent of the writer, but also inspired him to create novels “with continuation,” which could be published in parts in periodicals. The first such work was the novel “The Insulted and the Injured”.
1864 – appeared “story-paradox” “Notes from the Underground”, in which for the first time a symbolic for the creativity of Dostoevsky appeared the type of “underground man.” In the same year the elder brother of the writer died, whose debts he took upon himself.
1866 – Dostoevsky married his secretary-stenographer A. Snitkina, who became a faithful companion for the rest of his life. The same year is dated “Crime and Punishment” – the first in the top five of his top novels, which also includes the novels “Idiot”, “Demons”, “Teenager” and “The Brothers Karamazov.”
Throughout 1876 -1878 years. – monthly published his “Diary of a Writer”, in which he acted as a philosopher, moralist and preacher.
1880 – at a meeting of the Society of Lovers of Russian Literature, read Pushkin’s speech, which became a vivid event in the cultural life of the country.
January 26, 1881 – F. Dostoevsky died.