Summary of “Tales of Italy”

Just want to apologize, but for all the fairy tales until the materials we could not find: (

Near the pile of rubble near the road sits a black worker like a beetle with a medal on his chest.

He tells the passerby that the medal was for the construction of the Simplon tunnel, during which it was frightening sometimes: “When we entered it deeply, cutting through this wound, – the land there, inside, met us sternly.” She breathed on us with a hot breath, his heart froze, his head became heavy and his bones ached… Then she dumped stones on people and poured hot water on us, it was very scary! “

The tunnel was built by the worker and his father, who before his death said: “You know, Paolo, my son, I still think that this will happen: we and those who are on the other side will find each other in sorrow, we will meet – Do you believe in this? … If this happens, if people come together – come to my grave and say: Father

– done! That I knew! “

When, after 13 weeks, the builders of the tunnel met, the son came to the grave and said: “Father is done! People have won, done, father!”

The main idea of ​​the fairy tale is expressed in Paolo’s words: “A man is able to work!” Oh, signor, a little man, when he wants to work, is an invincible force! And believe me: in the end this little man will do whatever he wants. “

Narrative of a young musician dreaming of writing music about a boy slowly going to a big city. The city “lay down on the ground with heavy piles of buildings, snuggled up to it and groaned and muffled muffledly… The boy walks in the dusk of the field along the wide gray ribbon of the road… And the boy quietly walks the night, closing the black mantle of oblivion from where he came from. The city is seized with a yearning desire to see itself beautifully and proudly raised to the sun. He groans in delirium of many-sided desires of happiness, it is excited by the passionate will to live, and in the dark silence of the fields surrounding it,

quiet streams of muffled sounds flow, and the black bowl of the sky is all fuller and fuller becomes cloudy, melancholy light.

The boy stopped, waved his head, raised his eyebrows, and, swaying, went faster.

And the night, in the tender voice of her mother, said to him:

“It’s time, boy, go!” They are waiting. “

The musician understands that it is impossible to write such music, but worries that he will meet a boy in the city…

TALE VI about two fishermen.

One was an old man, wearing a straw hat, with a thick face in a gray stubble on his cheeks, lips and chin, his eyes swelled with fat, his nose red, his hands bronzed from sunburn.

The second one is a black-eyed dark-complexioned, slender and thin, in a red cap on his head, in a white sweatshirt on a bulging chest and blue trousers rolled up to his knees.

The old one asks, and the young one talks about the rich American woman whom he met on the eve of the young, rolled it in a boat, spoke little – she did not know Italian, sang and thought about happiness. In his opinion, little happiness is more honest. The old man agrees, but adds: “… little happiness is more honest, and greater is better.” Poor people are prettier, and the rich are stronger. “

At a small station between Rome and Genoa the conductor opened the door of the compartment and almost introduced a small, crooked old man. The old man has 13 sons, 4 daughters, many grandchildren, he goes to the wedding of his grandson.

Old Hugo tells of himself: he lost his eye in childhood, working in the vineyards with his father – the stone flew away; At 13 he was left an orphan, met the same poor, but hard-working and kind girl I go. They had nothing, but people helped, and on the morning of the wedding day they had everything they needed for home: a statue of the Madonna, dishes, linens, furniture… There was also a clean warm sheep’s cattle suitable for housing, donated by a young old Giovanni.

The main idea of ​​the fairy tale is expressed in the words of the priest: the people of labor “have good hands and even better their hearts.”

Analysis of the work

Gorky creates new works of art – the cycle “Tales of Italy” (1900 -1930), a collection of short stories “In Russia.” the first two parts of the autobiographical trilogy – “Childhood”, “In people.” In “Tales of Italy” Gorky in a bright poetic form revealed the soul of the people, showed “gold placers” in the characters and deeds of ordinary people of labor. These people are represented as bearers of all the most beautiful and noble. They have a sense of class solidarity, they have a highly developed spirit of patriotism and responsibility for the fate of their homeland.

What Gorky saw in the Italian people is inherent in all the peoples of the earth, and Gorky had every reason to state that his “Fairy Tales” could become “not bad” material for reading Russian workers. “Most of the 27” Tales of Italy “are artless stories about the facts of real life: about the strikers who worked at the tram in Naples, about the workers of Genoa, who took the children of their comrades from Parma to themselves, so that they could withstand the strike, the construction of the Simplon tunnel, etc. Why then did these stories or novels and some even remind Pts RCTs) are called fairy tales One answer to the question lies in the words of the great Danish storyteller Hans Christian Andersen, taken as an epigraph to Gorky cycle: “No fairy tales better than those posed by life itself” But it’s not only that..

The peculiarity of “Fairy tales about Italy” is that in them the future already visibly appears. Throughout the cycle, the idea of ​​unlimited possibilities of the creative genius of the people passes, which creates not only new tales and legends, but also new forms of life. New in “Tales” in comparison with the previous works of Gorky (except for the novel “Mother”) is that here the characters themselves are deeply aware of not only their strengths and capabilities, but also the inevitability of the realization of their aspirations in the not too distant future. “You see, if it’s grafted… It will be difficult to overcome us, eh?” – says the worker in the second fairy tale, referring to the sense of proletarian solidarity that the workers of Genoa and Parma have clearly revealed.

The heroes of fairy tales are characterized by a revolutionary attitude toward the world. The creative power of labor unites in these images with the transforming power of the revolution. One of the builders of the Simplon tunnel is proud of the man of labor: “Oh, signor, a little man, when he wants to work, is an invincible force!” And believe me: in the end, this little man will do everything he wants. ” Working Tram (7th tale) feels like a master of life and an accomplice in the work of beauty; he links all the most human, beautiful, and poetic with the notion of “socialism”. Socialist relations in the understanding of the heroes of “Tales of Italy” are the natural relations of the people of labor, for “the working man will be born a socialist,” a fighter for the truth, which “smells strong and always the same – labor afterward.” Socialism becomes an attractive force for the working people of the whole world. An example of the fighters for socialism for the working people of Italy are the Russian workers. “… The Russians are people,” says the mechanic enthusiastically in the fourteenth fairy tale. “Those who are disenfranchised, under the fear of losing their freedom and life, they have done a grandiose thing…” “The land of heroes!” – the painter echoed him with the same enthusiasm.

For Gorky, the real heroes were those who “create life against death, who conquer death.” Deep philosophical meaning is acquired by those tales in which the image of the mother is created, sometimes growing to the personification of the Motherland. The ninth tale Gorky begins with words full of profound meaning: “Let us glorify a woman – Mother, an inexhaustible source of an all-conquering life.” Let us glorify a woman in the world – Mother, a single force before which Death obediently leans! ” Even the “servant and slave of Death” bowed before the Mother – “Iron Tamerlane, the bloody scourge of the earth”, from which she demanded to return her son. But with all the strength of “not knowing the barriers” of love for children, the Mother can not forgive them treason to the motherland. The heroine of the eleventh tale kills her son, who became the enemy of his native city. In another fairy tale, a simple Italian, wife of the deceased fisherman, carefully raised the son-freak. But when she saw how foreigners with disgust pointed to her son as a sign of the degeneration of the nation, she killed him so that he would not cast a shadow on his native country.

A beautiful image of a simple Italian woman, a vendor of vegetables Nunchi created in the twenty-second fairy tale. She is the best dancer of the quarter. Nuncha is the bearer of joy, a bright view of life, optimism and love of life, so necessary for people. “People flashed around her like sails at dawn, when the first ray of sun touches them.”

With great love Gorky wrote about the children of Italy – about the wonderful boy Pepe (the 26th fairy tale), about the schoolchildren (7th). Admiring these little people, the writer says: “… you look at these children and want to shout after them, cheerfully and loudly:

“Hey, you people!” Long live your future! “

In “Tales of Italy” there are many colorful landscape sketches. They complement brightly diverse, cheerful characters of people warmed by the hot sun and washed by the spray of a sea wave. Man and nature are merged into a single living organism, for “when a man grasps the sea for the heart, he becomes a part of it, as the heart is only a part of the living person.” The same can be said about people who are in love with mountains, in the steppes, in magnificent valleys – in the rich and colorful nature of their native country. Note that the same harmonic union of man and nature is shown in Italian novels by M. Kotsiubynsky (“Dream”, “On the Island”). These novels were born as a result of the conversations of Gorky and Kotsyubinsky, who lived then on the island of Capri, and were written at one time with “Tales of Italy.”

В “Сказках об Италии” заметна та же особенность отражения жизни, что и в романе “Мать”: на переднем плане – люди труда. Представителей эксплуататорских классов в них почти нет, если не считать буржуазных интеллигентов в пятнадцатой и шестнадцатой сказках; в других случаях – это только эпизодические фигуры: охранители старых порядков в первой сказке, богатый американец в двадцать шестой и др. И тем не менее атмосфера классовой борьбы, напряженность острых конфликтов ощущаются во всех тех сказках, где показана жизнь итальянского народа.

Fairy tales are completely devoid of external ethnography, which could be expected from a writer who writes about a foreign country, especially Italy; no here and hobbies exotic. Gorky did not intend to surprise or delight the reader with the sights of this truly amazing and beautiful country. He was primarily interested in people, and he brilliantly revealed the soul of the Italian people, which was worthy of the Italians themselves. Writer D. Ghermanetto testifies that Gorky “… managed to show us in the charming frame of the beautiful nature of Italy, in truthful words, the whole life, poverty, poverty, suffering, the heroic struggle of the Italian people… He taught me to see better and deeper the people, from the depths of which I left “. The same Ghermanetto wrote: “Nobody knew how to write about the wonderful nature of our country with such extraordinary simplicity, as Gorky, and, more importantly, he alone wrote about the Italian people, about his life and struggle. That’s why Gorky is so known and loved in Italy. “

“Tales of Italy” are of great international importance. In them, as the Belinsky Pravda wrote, a people close to us and long acquainted are shown, “for the feelings, aspirations, and the Russian people are too close to him.” The great role of “Fairy tales about Italy” in the revolutionary education of working people noted. In February 1902 he wrote to Gorky: “It would be good to have a revolutionary proclamation in the type of” Fairytales “of the” Star. “Very, very glad that you are helping Zvezda. In another letter of the same time:” You are very, very much helped the “Star” and it made me very happy. “

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Summary of “Tales of Italy”