My head plows with its ears,
Like a bird with wings.
can not rest her legs on the neck anymore.
S. A. Yesenin. Black man
“Black Man” – one of the most mysterious, ambiguous and understandable works of Esenin. The poet began working in 1922, and basically it was written abroad, in February 1923 the first version of the poem was finished.
This poem was destined to become a major poet’s last poem Yesenin. It expressed the moods of despair and horror at an incomprehensible reality, a dramatic sense of the futility of any attempts to penetrate the mystery of being. This lyrical expression of the soul’s torment is a poem – one of the mysteries of Yesenin’s creativity. Her permission is primarily due to the interpretation
“Black man” is the poet’s double, he chose everything that the poet himself considers to be negative and vile. This theme – the theme of a morbid soul, a divided personality – is traditional for Russian classical literature. She received her incarnation in Dostoyevsky’s “Double”, Chekhov’s “Black Monk”. But none of the works where such an image occurs, carries such a heavy load of loneliness as Yesenin’s “Black Man”. The tragedy of the lyrical hero’s self-awareness lies in understanding his own doom: all the best and bright in the past, the future is seen as frightening and gloomily hopeless.
Reading a poem, you involuntarily ask the question: a black man is a deadly opponent of the poet or part of the force that eternally wants evil and eternally does good. “Duel” with a black man, whatever its nature, served as a kind of spiritual test for the lyrical hero, an occasion for merciless introspection.
However, in a literary work it is important not only what is written, but also how. The theme of duality is expressed at the compositional level. Before us, two images – a pure soul and a black man, and the flow of the monologue of the lyric hero into a dialogue with a double is a poetic expression of the subconscious. In the confessional book, read by the “bad guest”, the contradictions of the rebellious spirit of the lyric hero open. The ratio of monological and dialogical speech is revealed in the rhythmic-intonational structure of the poem.
The hard rhythm of the dactyl enhances the dark intonations of the monologue of the black man, and the agitated trochee promotes the expression of the dialogical form of thought and narration. The metaphor of a broken mirror is read as an allegory of a ruined life. There is expressed a piercing longing for the departing youth, and awareness of its uselessness, and a sense of vulgarity of life.
However, this “too early fatigue” is still overcome: in the finale of the poem, the night is replaced in the morning – saving at times sobering from the nightmares of darkness. A nightly conversation with a “dirty guest” helps the poet to penetrate into the depths of the soul and painfully poke dark layers from her. Perhaps, the lyrical hero hopes, it will lead to purification.