In the twentieth century, the most prestigious international award was, undoubtedly, the Nobel Prize. Established her well-known Swedish experimental chemist and businessman Alfred Nobel. The future scientist was born in the family of architect and inventor Emmanuel Nobel in 1833. When Alfred was 9 years old, his father brought his family to Russia, where he received the post of director of the powder factory.
Young Alfred studied fine, especially interested in chemistry. He was very fond of experimenting, and as soon as possible, he equipped a small laboratory in his family estate in Sweden, where he made several interesting discoveries in the field of explosives. But the main achievement of Nobel, which brought him fame and very solid capital, was the invention of dynamite. The new explosive made it possible to carry out such daring projects as laying railway tunnels in the mountains, clearing riverbeds, conducting drilling operations. Nobel always resolutely opposed the use of his discoveries for military purposes.
Alfred Nobel died in 1896. In the will, he ordered the use of his capital for the formation of a fund whose purpose is to reward people who managed to bring “the greatest benefit to humanity.” Nobel proposed the establishment of five annual prizes – for discoveries in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology and medicine, for the best literary works. for activities for the benefit of the world. Since 1969 the sixth prize – on economy is handed over. Among the winners of the Nobel Prize are representatives of many nations of the world, including Russian scientists, writers and public figures: Ivan Pavlov, Ilya Mechnikov, Petr Kapitsa, Lev Landau, Zhores Alferov, Ivan Bunin, Mikhail Sholokhov, Boris Pasternak, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Joseph Brodsky, Mikhail Gorbachev and others.