The summary of the work of AI Solzhenitsyn “In the first circle”

Volodin Innokenty Artemyevitch – a young brilliant successful diplomat, married to the daughter of a major general, prosecutor on special. cases. Enlightenment came to him when he began to disassemble the cabinets of his late mother and came across her notes. His whole life and work appeared to him in a new light, and he realized that everything around him was a lie. As an intelligent man, he began to analyze what was happening, to read the newspapers in a new way, to look at colleagues, a father-in-law, a spoiled wife. Confirmed his suspicion of visiting his uncle from Tver, a typical Russian intellectual with dreams of freedom, soberly assessing Soviet reality. Work began to seem Volodin vile, mean, and he decides to call the US embassy to warn about the transfer of the secret information about the atomic bomb to the Russian agent. It is over that, how to determine by the voice of the speaker on the phone, and Rubin is working, with his help arrest Volodin. Once in prison, he does not regret what he did, here, in Lubyanka, “high penetration”, “the second breath, which suddenly returns to the stony body of the athlete no insensibility and freshness” suddenly appeared before him. Egorov Spiridon Danilovich is a prisoner, working as a janitor in a sharashka. Fifty years old, married, has two sons and a daughter. At the age of sixteen he worked at a glass factory, went to meetings. When the land was declared peasant, I rushed to the village, took an allotment, raised grain. At nineteen summoned to the Red Army, but did not want to break away from the ground and leaned into the forest. He was captured by the Whites, then by the Reds, he fought in Poland. He returned home, got married, became an “intensive person” – the so-called people who wanted to maintain a strong household, not on farm laborers, but on science. But then the house burned down at Yegorovs, as soon as they began to get out of the burnt people, how the dekulakization began and Spiridon was appointed commissioner for collectivization. For “niggling” soon from the commissars drove, and then arrested, gave 10 years for “economic counter-revolution.” We sent to Belomorkanal, then – to the Moscow-Volga canal, where he worked as a digger, carpenter. “Economic counter-revolution” was changed to “abuse”, they gave the “self-defense rifle” in hands, that is, they made them escort, and soon they were released. Spiridon took his wife and children and left, went to the plant in the village. The war began, the front approached the village, Yegorov did not want to part with his family, and he decided to wait in the forest, then returned with his family to his village and again plowed the land. He went to the partisans after the Germans burned the village, and Marfa and the children were taken to her mother. But when he found out that the Germans had “built up all the villagers” from that village, he rushed after the family. In Slutsk all were put on trains and sent to Germany. Under Mainz, he and his sons were assigned to the plant, and his wife and daughter to the Bauers. After the war, Yegorov and his family lived in an American camp for displaced persons. The matchmaker met, they began to wash the meeting with untried alcohol, Spiridon drank a glass and went blind. German doctors performed the operation, a year later they ordered the operation to be repeated, after which, with one eye, he would see fully, and the other half. Surrendering to Soviet agitation, and most importantly – because of her daughter, who did not want to marry a German, returned home, but already at the border the family was divided. Yegorov and his sons were tried for treason, and his wife and daughter were exiled to the Perm region. The sharashka got because of the fact that the card was written “glass blower” – he worked as a glass blower at the Bryansk plant. The commandant defined Yegorov as a janitor. In spite of all these difficult life vicissitudes, Spiridon was almost always calm, confident in the correctness of what he was doing, judicious, conscientious, worked from morning till night “he defended his life before the commandant.”
The features of Egorov are in many respects similar to those of Platon Karataev. However, there is a significant difference between them, possibly stemming from the difference in the life experiences that fall to the lot of both. Egorov is clearly not a supporter of Tolstoy’s non-resistance to evil. He answers Nergin’s question, with what measure life should be understood, very laconic: “The Wolfhound is right, but the cannibal is not.” Whatever the power, Yegorov always lived with them “in a brace.” The Earth and the Family were for him a home, a religion, and a socialism. Wives of prisoners. This is a special category of martyrs. In many respects, they are much harder than their husbands on sharashka: they are subjected to universal contempt – at work and in public kitchens, they are persecuted, dismissed from work, deprive children of a piece of bread, compel them to renounce their husbands, not to mention the experience of endless separation and anxiety for them. Some women do not stand up, get divorced. So, on the verge of collapse is the faithful friend of Gerasimovich Natalia Pavlovna, who even on a date with her husband can not tell about her true position: she is dismissed, there is nothing to live for. wait for another three years, and even if the husband does not add time. The question arose in front of her – to renounce or not to renounce? She asks her husband for not consenting to divorce, but for something to come up with, because he can receive early release for a particularly important job. She does not know that “especially important work” always turns against the same as her husband, and he has to constantly solve the problem of conscience. Nerzhin’s wife, Nadia, has been waiting for him for eight years. A graduate student, lives in a hostel, hides that her husband is alive, says, that he was missing in the war. While searching for Gleb, she learned the addresses of Moscow prisons, got acquainted with other wives in queues. She achieved a date, on which she realized that her husband had distanced herself from her. For him, the term is “light cold infinity”, and she counts every day, and besides, he persistently tries to persuade her that all the same the old life will not return, time does not work for them. It is almost broken, almost ready for divorce. Nerzhi Gleb Vikeptevich – one of the main characters, a prisoner, a mathematician, absorbed many of the character traits and biographies of the young author. He fought, military censorship fished out of his letter to a friend sedition – criticism of Stalin, then was arrested: prison, transfer, camp. The novel’s action takes place on the eve of 1950 in the building No. 1, nicknamed sharashka, the Research Institute in Marfino, where prisoners, scientists, They were brought here from different camps. Stroke in the sharashka the third year, in general – “the convict of the fifth year of harness” and another four years of the war, and the whole period – ten years. Here he turns 31 years old. He is married to a graduate student, there are no children. Looks older than his peers. “His brown hair, with a break on his side, was thick, but the corners of the wrinkles around his eyes, the lips and longitudinal grooves on his forehead, and the skin of his face, sensitive to the lack of fresh air, had a shade of languid, especially his stinginess in movements – that wise stinginess, which nature keeps the prisoner’s forces running low in the camp. ” Nerzhin was brought to Marfino in the top ten. He is engaged in secret telephony. He is fond of linguistics and history, in particular, he studies the history of revolutions. In his spare time he writes “Studies of the Russian Revolution.” ” For a mathematician in the history of 17, there is nothing unexpected, “he reasoned. – After all, the tangent at ninety degrees, soaring to infinity, immediately and collapses into the abyss minus infinity. So Russia, having flied to unprecedented freedom for the first time, immediately and immediately broke off into the worst of tyranny. “In disputes with his colleague Rubin, his colleague, Nerzhin shows strong skepticism about socialism. were, always have a philosophical character and show the erudition, breadth and acuity of the minds of the heroes. philologist Rubin, Nerzhin shows strong skepticism in relation to socialism. These disputes, about what they were, always have a philosophical character and show the erudition, breadth and sharpness of the minds of the heroes. philologist Rubin, Nerzhin shows strong skepticism in relation to socialism. These disputes, about what they were, always have a philosophical character and show the erudition, breadth and sharpness of the minds of the heroes.
The years of war and camp liberated Nerzhin from the dogmas of Marxism, and he considers his doubts “conscientiousness of knowledge.” Morality for Nerzhin – the measure of everything: the values ​​of man, science, progress. He does not recognize progress in the form of the development of technology and material excess, progress for him is “the general willingness to share the missing,” and the foundation of the universe is justice. Progress in the form of an atomic bomb, he considers a disaster. That’s why he tries to stop Rubin, who was carried away by the idea of ​​finding the man who tried to prevent the appearance of the atomic bomb in Russia: “Listen, why does the atomic bomb matter to the Soviet Union?” This guy did not reason so silly. ” After all, an atomic bomb is an instrument of enslavement, and if the Soviet Union takes possession of a bomb, they will never be freed from tyranny. And Nerzhin himself does the act – refuses to do the work that he considers immoral. In the final of the novel he is taken to the stage. Nerzhin tormented by the question: maybe the truth is also true of the principle of non-interference, non-resistance to evil? “The wolfhound is right, the cannibal is not,” the janitor Spiridon answers him, according to which counteraction is justified, but within certain limits, when it does not become evil itself. And then the question naturally arises of the purpose and means. “Society’s goals should not be material,” but even so “it’s not a result that’s important… A spirit!” Not what’s done, but how. “Not what was achieved-but at what price.” With the camp authorities, Nerzhin fought for justice only with the help of the law. This is Nerzhin’s position, which he tries to follow steadily, and the position of...

the author. Rubin Lev Grigorievich – a prisoner, a philologist, friend and opponent of Nerzhin in disputes. The prototype for this image was the philologist-Germanist Lev Kopelev, the author of the book “To Keep Forever”. Ruby outwardly somewhat unkempt: the button is torn off, the belt on the shaped overall is relaxed. But his eyes are alive, black and black, stiff, curly beard. Indefatigable debater, inventor, Rubin is emotional, ironic, quick-tempered. At the front, he was a major in the “department for the disintegration of enemy troops” – was fishing from the camps of prisoners of war Germans who did not want to stay behind barbed wire, talked to them, agitated, then someone passed through the front with explosives, someone with “persuasive” texts, and with someone and himself crossed the front line. Arrested him for agitation against the slogan “Blood for blood, death for death.” Rubin is an intellectual, encyclopaedically educated person, knows several languages, has a brilliant memory. He wrote in the sharashka the major work “Russian speech in the perception of the hearing and electro-acoustic,” prepared in vain the “Project for the Creation of Catholic Temples”. In sharashka, almost everyone enjoys love and respect, especially for the most incredible inventions that diversify the life of prisoners: composes a parody of “The Raven and the Fox,” full of camp terms, arranges an indicative trial of Prince Igor with all attributes inherent in the Soviet court. A convinced Marxist, Rubin manages to separate those who planted him, from the idea, believes that there are only two worlds, two systems – socialism and capitalism, the third is not given, so the choice is inevitable. Rubin serves socialism. He is happy and proud, when he is offered to recognize by the voice of the “spy” who gave the atomic bomb to America. Nerzhin’s exhortations about the fact that, having identified the “spy”, he works for those who arranged the Gulag, do not help. With the image of Rubin in the novel is connected with the moral character of the scientist. Ruska is the youngest prisoner on the little ball. Handsome man with magnificent hair and cheerful, roguish, disposed face. I went to the Lubyanka, having just entered Moscow University, on suspicion of espionage – in the village I got fishing with the Americans from the embassy who rented the dacha there. Suddenly they released – as he later realized – for surveillance, like a duck. He hid himself, was wanted for two years, learned to falsify passports, took him again, when he again entered the university, only Leningrad, and was sentenced to twenty-five years, and sent to Vorkuta. The sharashka was brought to the account card – it was a milling machine. Well-read, thinking. He wants to learn, to live honestly, but only – like everything, if no one has privileges. In sharashka he is also forced to knock, and he agrees. Firstly, because it languishes from inactivity in Sharashkin’s comfort, and secondly, to benefit the prisoners – that is, he will expose the informers from within and inform the information that the prisoners themselves want to convey. And he really expose the local informers, for which he is taken away from sharashka. By the fate of Rus, the author continues the dispute about goals and means – one can not go to the righteous goal in unjust ways. that it languishes from inactivity in Sharashkin’s coziness, and secondly, to benefit the prisoners – that is, he will expose the informers from within and inform the information that the prisoners themselves will want to convey. And he really expose the local informers, for which he is taken away from sharashka. By the fate of Rus, the author continues the dispute about goals and means – one can not go to the righteous goal in unjust ways. that it languishes from inactivity in Sharashkin’s coziness, and secondly, to benefit the prisoners – that is, he will expose the informers from within and inform the information that the prisoners themselves will want to convey. And he really expose the local informers, for which he is taken away from sharashka. By the fate of Rus, the author continues the dispute about goals and means – one can not go to the righteous goal in unjust ways.
Sologdip Dmitry Alexandrovich – the prototype served as Dmitry Mikhailovich Papin, the author of the book “Lubyanka-Ekibas-ace: camp notes.” Sologdin is 37 years old, married, has a son whom he never saw, since he was born when Sologudip was in prison. From an old noble family that suffered during the revolution. Young Sologudip reacted to the revolution in two ways: on the one hand, he hated her as a mutiny of the mob, on the other hand, in her “merciless rectilinearness and unremitting energy,” she felt her own. From the age of eighteen he set himself the task of acquiring a million through some dazzling invention, but he was too distinguished among others and received a first term, and in the camp one more. By 1950, he had been sitting for twelve years, and the end was not foreseen. A strong-willed and determined person, Sologdin knows what he wants, knows how to get his way. Talented, beautiful: thinning blonde hair, light-brown trimmed mustache and French beard, bright blue, youthful sparkling eyes. He likes to interfere with everything. It is found only with the educated, not assuming to get something valuable from people undeveloped. To maintain the physical form every day, the wood is pricked. It’s ironic. He speaks in the language of Ultimate Clarity, that is, without using foreign words: instead of “sphere” – “oshariya”, “skepticism” – “aggravated disbelief”, “sacrilege” – “sacredness”, “ideals” – “light-colored” etc. On the whole sharashka, Sologdin after Rubin is perhaps the most inveterate controversial, partly because thoughts are sharpened in the debate, partly considering the dispute as a men’s duel. The fiercest debates take place with Rubin, mainly about the fate of Russia and socialism, a classless society, a revolution that, according to Sologdin, is one villainy, “blood from an ax.” After one of the disputes with Rubin decides “Do not give them an encryptor!”, As opposed to Rubin, helping them to obtain an atomic bomb. Convinced that the encryptor turned out, Sologdin burns the drawings, but then, under certain conditions, promises Colonel Yakonov, the chief engineer of the MGB Special Equipment Department, to restore them in a month. In this case, Sologdin argues: “It’s good to have a strong head.” You have the outcome until the last minute. “All the ways of events are subordinate to you.” What for to perish? For whom? For a godlessly lost, corrupted people? ” And his conditions are as follows: at the first stage, to pass the chief of the department Oskolupov, who likes to be a co-author. Report it to the minister and let him sign the order on the appointment of him, Sologdpna, the leading designer. Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich – a small yellow-eyed old man with thinning hair, with pockmarks on his gray face, with dark, uneven teeth, with fat fingers that leave traces on the paper. He reads and rereads his own biography, proposes to launch the third edition in order to provide it with all the plants, schools, collective farms, since the book “is necessary for his people”. He celebrated his 70th birthday by scoring Traicho Kostov to death. In his early youth he studied in the seminary, he bowed and prayed for eleven years – it turned out to be wasted. He made a bet on the revolution – she also deceived: the one who is talking to others is moving forward. Finally, put on the Secret Police, became a sexton. But most of all he liked exas – expropriation. At forty I understood finally, how to live: the main force is an unspoken decision, the second force is not to believe other people’s words, one does not attach importance to oneself; the third is not to forgive; the fourth – constantly to think, with whom you now along the way and up to which pillar. This is his morality. He believes that he created the best socialism, however, he has already built true communism. Suspicious, does not trust anyone, not even his mother. One person trusted – Hitler, and he deceived! The main advantages of the Russian people is a clear mind, persistent character and patience. He wants to be accepted as a Russian. He considers himself a great scientist. He told me to build more monuments. He dreams to become the Emperor of the planet, to organize world communism. The way to see him through the third world war. the third is not to forgive; the fourth – constantly to think, with whom you now along the way and up to which pillar. This is his morality. He believes that he created the best socialism, however, he has already built true communism. Suspicious, does not trust anyone, not even his mother. One person trusted – Hitler, and he deceived! The main advantages of the Russian people is a clear mind, persistent character and patience. He wants to be accepted as a Russian. He considers himself a great scientist. He told me to build more monuments. He dreams to become the Emperor of the planet, to organize world communism. The way to see him through the third world war. the third is not to forgive; the fourth – constantly to think, with whom you now along the way and up to which pillar. This is his morality. He believes that he created the best socialism, however, he has already built true communism. Suspicious, does not trust anyone, not even his mother. One person trusted – Hitler, and he deceived! The main advantages of the Russian people is a clear mind, persistent character and patience. He wants to be accepted as a Russian. He considers himself a great scientist. He told me to build more monuments. He dreams to become the Emperor of the planet, to organize world communism. The way to see him through the third world war. even the mother. One person trusted – Hitler, and he deceived! The main advantages of the Russian people is a clear mind, persistent character and patience. He wants to be accepted as a Russian. He considers himself a great scientist. He told me to build more monuments. He dreams to become the Emperor of the planet, to organize world communism. The way to see him through the third world war. even the mother. One person trusted – Hitler, and he deceived! The main advantages of the Russian people is a clear mind, persistent character and patience. He wants to be accepted as a Russian. He considers himself a great scientist. He told me to build more monuments. He dreams to become the Emperor of the planet, to organize world communism. The way to see him through the third world war.


The summary of the work of AI Solzhenitsyn “In the first circle”