The richness of speech is the maximum saturation of it with different, not repetitive means of the language, necessary to express the necessary meaningful information.
Opposite to wealth concept – poverty of speech.
The richness of speech is multilayered: wealth is lexical, phraseological, semantic, syntactic, intonational.
The lexical richness of speech is reflected in various dictionaries: in the Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language by V. I. Dal, in the Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language by D. N. Ushakov, in the Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language by SI Ozhegov and N. Yu. Shvedova and others.
The vocabulary of a person can be different. Some scientists believe that the active dictionary of modern man usually does not exceed 7-9 thousand words, according to estimates of others – 11-13 thousand. AS Pushkin used in his works more than 21 thousand words. A dictionary of Ellochka – “ogres” (“Twelve chairs” I. Ilf and E. Petrov) – just 30 words: hamite, ho-ho, glitter, darkness, famous, boy, etc.
The speaker needs to have as much talk as possible to express his thoughts clearly and clearly. It is important to constantly take care of expanding your vocabulary.
The appropriateness of speech is such a selection, such organization of language facilities that make speech appropriate to the purposes and conditions of communication.
Relevant speech should correspond to the topic of the message, its logical and emotional content, the composition of listeners or readers, informational, educational, aesthetic and other tasks of written or oral speech.
Observance of the appropriateness of speech presupposes knowledge of the styles of the literary language and the patterns of usage peculiar to them.
Let’s consider aspects of relevance of speech.
The appropriateness of a single word, turnover, construction or composition-speech system as a whole can be predetermined and regulated by the style of the language. For... example, the terms will be relevant in the scientific style, chancellery – in the formal-business, poetic words – in the artistic. In artistic speech permissible and relevant are deviations from the literary norm at different levels of the language :. .. in them benches you can always see a bunch of steering-wheels. a woman in a red kerchief. shot shot. a demicotone and two merchants’ clerks, who at any time play near the doors to the Svayka (NV Gogol, “Stroller”).
In this sentence there are words and forms of words characteristic of colloquial speech, vernacular, and there is also a unification of unrelated concepts: a bundle of sheep and a woman, a demicotone and two salesmen.
Relevance situational. This relevance in certain situations of speech, in the style of the work as a whole.
In the work of art, sometimes certain elements of the composition of the text are inappropriate: a dialogue constructed without regard for the laws of spoken language (meaningless dialogue), improperly direct speech (inner speech). If this happens, then the principle of artistic realism is violated. For example, in an improperly direct speech, it is unusual for a person to use expressions such as “painstaking and difficult work”, “attracting light,” “inexplicable sadness,” “secret thoughts,” “night shadows of evil” (see I. Golovchenko’s story “Black trail “).
Relevance is personal and psychological. It is important to take care of how our speech will affect the interlocutor: does it hurt him, does not humiliate his dignity? The most typical manifestation of personality-psychological inappropriateness is rudeness. A sharp word, caustic remark, categorical judgments cause severe trauma to people around us. The ability to find the right words, intonation in this or that situation of communication is the key to a successful interrelationship of the interlocutors, the emergence of the so-called. feedback.