Vladimir-Suzdal princes tried to extend their power to the entire North-East Russia, but could not conquer the Novgorodians.
Novgorod is situated on the Volkhov River. It was inhabited by colonists, trappers, fishermen, warriors-traders-people of restless disposition. They carried out hunting raids and military raids on eastern lands – up to the White Sea and the Ural Mountains. It was not easy to keep such people in obedience-they were reluctant to move to Novgorod.
The Novgorodians were sent princes from Kiev, they paid the Grand Duke the Kiev tribute. But after the death of Yaroslav the Wise, the Novgorodians themselves began to elect their princes. When Svyatopolk II wanted to impose his son on them, they warned him: “Send him if he has two heads.” Svyatopolk’s son II did not have a spare head, he wanted to reign in a rebellious city.
On the throne of Novgorod princes did not stay long. During periods of intercollegiate power in the city belonged to elected members of the government – posadnik and tysyatskomu. Over time, the Novgorodians began to elect and the local archbishop. He used enormous power in Novgorod, he even had his own troops. So, in the second half of the XII century. The Novgorod government was already elected. At the end of the XII century. Novgorod could afford to drive away the unwanted prince. Vladimir-Suzdal princes tried to extend their power to... Novgorod, but the Novgorodians dared them. During the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. Novgorod and its suburb Pskov were, like Venice and Genoa, republics. Although they opposed the unification of Russia, they nevertheless closed the way to Russia for the Germans and the Swedes.
How was the administration of the Novgorod Republic carried out? The Novgorodians decided their affairs on the Veche, which was convened by the “veche bell”. Veche approved new laws, invited or chased the princes, elected local members of the government, and decided questions of war and peace. It is known that the “last argument of kings” is guns. Novgorodians such proof served their zychny voice and kulaks. According to the chronicler, they often came to the veche “in armor, helmets, aki to fight.” At times it came to grandiose fights – with human sacrifices and robbery of the vanquished.
The Veche did not discuss the pressing problems, but only approved or rejected decisions prepared in advance by the city council. The council consisted of Boyars. So it’s not the crowd, but the boyars were led in the Novgorod Republic, although they often split into warring factions.
The Novgorodians were very proud of their city, respectfully called it Lord Novgorod the Great.
The Veche prevented the princes from seizing Novgorod land, as happened with other appanage principalities.
Veche is a meeting of full-fledged citizens in Novgorod.
Boyars – military nobility and princely advisers.