Kiev – the capital of Ukraine (since 1934) and the center of the Kiev region – is located on the Dnieper River and is the country’s largest city, its main industrial, transport and cultural center. It is a railway junction and a river port with a population of 2,809,000 inhabitants.
Kiev was founded in the V century as the center of the glade tribe. In the Russian chronicles the city is mentioned since 860. In the IX – early 12th century it was the capital of Kievan Rus. In 1240, Kiev was destroyed during the Mongol-Tatar invasion. Since 1362, the city was under the rule of Lithuania and Poland, and since 1654 – in the Russian Empire.
Kiev is a major center of mechanical engineering (including machine tools, transport engineering, precision instrumentation). Here there are enterprises of electrotechnical, radio-electronic, light (silk, knitted, sewing, shoe), chemical, polygraphic, food-flavoring industries. The production of building materials is developed. In addition, the city is the center of the region, specializing in the production of agricultural products: grain, fruit, sugar beet, etc. Since 1960, the capital operates a subway.
In Kiev there are 18 universities (including the university, conservatory). Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 15 theaters (including the Ukrainian Opera and Ballet Theater), about 30 museums (including the literary and artistic name of TG Shevchenko, historical, Ukrainian fine arts, Russian art, western and eastern art, folk architecture and life, history of Kyiv, archaeological, folk decorative art, archive-museum of literature and art, history of medicine, etc.) and the republican stadium.
The capital of Ukraine is considered one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Numerous monuments of architecture are the remains of the Golden Gate (XI century), St. Sophia Cathedral (XI century, the bell tower of the 17th-19th centuries), the Church of Spas-on-Berestove (late 11th-early 12th centuries in 1157 the founder of Moscow was buried here) Yury Dolgoruky), Vydubetsky monastery (11th c.), St. Cyril’s Church (12th c.), Kiev-Pecherskaya Lavra (XI-XVIII cc.), St. Andrew’s Church (XVIII century project of VV Rastrelli), Vladimir Cathedral in.), and also created in 1947-1954. always animated ensemble of Khreshchatyk, the central street of the city, destroyed in the years of the German-fascist occupation.
In the 60-80-ies. residential areas were built: Rusanovka, Obolon and others. The monument in Babi Yar (1976 sculptors MG and BN Lysenko, VV Sukhenko, AP Vytryk, etc.), the memorial complex “Ukrainian State Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 “(1981, sculptor V. 3. Boroday, etc.), the old quarters of the city, numerous theaters and museums leave an unforgettable impression among tourists.