1. Is it possible to replace wood with other materials?
Most wood products can be made from other materials, and in some cases, substitute products can be even better. For example, plastic skis now almost completely replaced wooden ones.
However, wood is still widely used in everyday life and industry, both for economic and for environmental reasons. For example, in a wooden house, surrounded by pure wood furniture, a person feels much better.
Synthetic materials in many people cause allergic reactions. It is estimated that a person spends an average of 100 m3 of wood for his life. There are products in which the replacement of wood with another material drastically changes their properties.
2. Where and why are large timber-processing plants and the main enterprises of the pulp and paper industry located? Compare the figure with the population density map.
Large forestry complexes are located in the zone of the European North, in the south of Western and Central Siberia, which is associated with the availability of forest resources.
The main enterprises of the pulp and paper industry are located in the surplus areas near the rivers, because this industry is characterized by considerable material consumption, a water reservoir – bone and energy intensity. The leading paper-producing regions are shown in Table 9.
3. Wood – universal raw materials. How did the use of wood change as the economy developed?
The use of wood began with the manufacture of simple tools and fires for heating and cooking. Gradually, this raw material penetrated many branches of the economy. In the XVIII century. wood was actively used in metallurgy: to produce 1 pood of pig iron, 3-5 poods of charcoal were required, 8 poods of charcoal were used to produce 1 pood of iron. By analogy with oil and natural gas, the forest is called “green gold”, emphasizing the exceptional value of this resource.
Despite a wide variety of application areas, and now about a third of the wood produced goes to fuel. The use of wood depends on the properties of the particular tree species. Table 10 shows the scope of different breeds, supplement it, giving your examples.
4. Which industries are most closely associated with the forest industry and why?
The timber industry is now a powerful and diverse field of activity, closely related to suppliers and consumers of products. In the industry associated with the use of wood, about 1.4 million people are employed in Russia. And it is more correct to talk not about industry, but about the forest complex. By analogy with the agroindustrial complex, draw up a scheme of the forest complex, including transport, chemical industry, engineering, light industry, as well as science and education.
The further development of inter-branch relations will allow Russia to overcome the main problems of the forestry complex. For example, irrational use of resources. Russia loses from 25 to 75% of the timber produced, that is, from 0.5 to 1.5 million hectares is wasted in vain, and the restoration of the forest fund takes considerable time. The most valuable tree species are slowly growing. Almost all young trees first grow quickly, then growth slows down, and the ripeness of the tree, ie, the state in which it is possible to cut, is reached in birch and aspen in 50-70 years, in conifers in the north – in 150 years, in the central and the southern taiga – in 80-100 years.
5. Show on the map the largest timber industry complexes. Estimate their placement in terms of economic feasibility, ecology.
Forestry complexes are located on large rivers in the forest-rich regions. The main ones are located in the cities of Arkhangelsk, Syktyvkar, Asino, Lesosibirsk, Ust-Ilimsk, Bratsk, Amursk.
Such an arrangement is economically justified – the LPK combines all the stages of production: billet, processing and chemical processing of raw materials.
However, the active use of forest resources inevitably entails their depletion. Therefore, we should not forget about the need to increase the productivity of forests, improving the ways to restore them. With non-compliance with production... technology, rivers suffer.
6. Why do you think now products made of solid natural wood are especially appreciated?
The advantages of wooden products over their analogues will be eloquently told by their producers. For example, manufacturers of windows and wooden houses.
Among the main points we emphasize the following:
A) The wood is breathing.
In the field of construction, wood is of great value. Compared with other building materials, it does not interfere with air circulation, since the internal structure of the wood provides a constant air exchange. Wood also provides the optimum level of humidity in the house without using any air conditioners. The absence of drafts in combination with the special freshness of the living tree creates a unique microclimate of the chopped house.
B) Wood preserves heat.
Despite the provision of free
Air exchange, chopped house is a warm and solid construction. Thanks to the ability to store and retain heat at the optimum level for livelihoods, log walls provide the best heat preservation in comparison with brick and concrete walls of the same thickness. Even in extremely severe frosts, the chopped house effectively keeps the heat and at the same time, thanks to
Its remarkable properties, keeps a favorable temperature on hot summer days.
B) Wood preserves health.
In modern construction, often used artificial materials that interfere with the necessary air exchange inside the house. The air is sometimes too dry and supersaturated with carbon dioxide. Excessive concentration of carbon dioxide can cause headaches and other unpleasant sensations. In the chopped house there are no problems of this kind, as the wood breathes and is a pure natural product that meets all the ecological standards of building materials.
D) Ease of disposal.
From the point of view of ecology, an important advantage of wooden products is the ease of its disposal after the end of their service life. The recycling of similar products from steel or concrete is more expensive. This property of wood becomes especially relevant with the development of such a direction as the ecology of industry, and the adoption of laws according to which the producer is obliged to ensure that after the commodity becomes unusable, it could be processed into harmless substances.
7. What folk handicrafts related to the use of wood, you know? In which regions of Russia do they develop?
Woodcarving has always occupied an honorable place in the work of the national masters of Russia. Particularly famous were the Abramtsevo-Kudrin carving and products of Talashkino masters, the complex of wooden buildings “Kizhi”. In many ancient Russian cities there are museums of wooden architecture, in which you can get acquainted with the best examples of folk art, for example, Small Karelians near Arkhangelsk.
At the end of XIX century. in the vicinity of Moscow estate Abramtsevo, on the initiative of ID Polenova in the estate of SI Mamontov, there was a carpenter’s workshop, in which carvers from the surrounding villages – Khotkova, Akhtyrka, Kudrin, and Mutovka were studying and working. The products of the masters of this school are distinguished by a variety of tinting, emphasizing the natural beauty of the tree. At the heart of vegetable ornamentation lie not only samples of carved peasantry and house decor, but also ornamental screensavers of old printed books.
Currently, the fishing center is located in the town of Khotkov, Sergiev Posad district, where a carving factory works. The Abramtsevo-Kudrin carvers are trained by the Abramtsev Art and Industry College named after M. Sh. VM Vasnetsova.
Another center of peasant art was the former estate of Princess MK Tenisheva, located 18 km from Smolensk – Talashkino. In the estate were organized educational and artistic-industrial workshops of ceramics, carvings and paintings on wood, carpentry, embroidery, etc. In Talashkino worked artists S. Malyutin, M. Vrubel, N. K. Roerich, A. N. Benois, MV Nesterov, KA Korovin, IE Repin, sculptor P. P. Trubetskoy. Now it is a historical and artistic reserve, in which the park, the building of the art workshop of MK Tenisheva, wooden buildings in the Russian style have been preserved.