In XIII – XV centuries. noble people in Russia lived for the most part in the mansion – two or three-story buildings, first wooden, and later – stone, with porches and teremami. They were surrounded by tall wooden fences with gates and wickets. In the center of the courtyard, apart from the choir itself, there were a few more houses for servants. Immediately there were built stables, stalls, rigs and baths. Very rich people built their own church. Near the yard there was a garden, a garden, flower beds.
In the mansion there were living rooms, light-rooms – the rooms that were best illuminated – here women embroidered, weaved, spun, etc. There was also a room for the reception of the guests’ room. When it was cold, the stoves were heated in the mansions. Smoke exited through the chimney. In the mansion there were necessarily icons, solid and bulky wooden furniture: tables, lavas, chairs, chests, cabinets and shelves for storing dishes, etc. In the 14th-15th c. In the homes of the richest people in Moscow and Novgorod began to insert glass windows. At dusk, candles were lit from grease or wax.
Simple people lived in dugouts, semi-dugouts or shacks, which had no windows, so that the heat would last longer. Such a dwelling was heated, so to speak, in a black way: there was no chimney, and smoke emitted through a hole in the roof. The well-to-do peasants had a fenced yard: a wooden house with outbuildings, a garden and a garden. An integral part of this house was a stove. She heated the room, cooked her food and baked bread, sometimes slept on the stove, especially on cold winter nights. The room was lit by beams. The furniture was poor, and the modest dishes were clay and wooden pots, bowls, spoons, knives.
Clothing showed the person’s belonging to a certain class. The common people wore rough homespun clothing – hemp, linen or wool. The fabrics were painted in different colors. Young people wore more bright clothes, and older people – more dark. Well-off people sewed their outfit from foreign expensive fabrics.
Both men and women wore a low-necked shirt, an upper embroidered shirt. Men wore narrow pants. In the autumn and winter they carried suites, winter boots, caftans, sheepskin coats, and rich feudal lords and merchants – fur coats from bears, wolves, foxes, sables. The outer clothing was girded with a wide belt, on which the kalit was clinging. Grandmothers wore fur
hats, and common people – felted.
Women’s shirts were long, to the heels, on top of them they wore sarafans – dresses of dense fabric without sleeves, decorated with embroidery. When it rained, the women wore cloaks. In winter they wore fur clothes: rich from expensive furs, and poor ones – cheap. Russian princess in the XV century. could have a dozen or even more fur coats from the most diverse fur. Fur coats were kept, neatly worn and handed over to the inheritance.
Girls hair was loose or plaited in a braid. Married women hid under a kerchief, on top of which they wore a kokoshnik – headdress with a high decorated semicircular scabbard for a long time.
Feudal lords and townspeople, men and women, wore leather boots and boots, while peasants wore boots and boots.
They ate mostly flour dishes and cereals. “Bread and porridge are our food,” the Russian proverb says. Bread ate rye, occasionally – wheat. We had a low breakfast, but lunch and dinner were hearty. Traditional food: rassolnik, soup, porridge, pancakes, pancakes, etc. Ate a lot of fruits, berries, mushrooms, nuts and honey. Often they ate fish, milk, cheese, butter, eggs. Great masters were given game, and ordinary people ate lamb, veal.