“Comparative biographies” of Plutarch in brief summary

“Comparative biographies” – this is 23 pairs of biographies: one Greek, one Roman, beginning with the legendary kings of Theseus and Romulus and ending with Caesar and Antonius, of whom Plutarch heard from live witnesses. For historians, this is a precious source of information; but Plutarch wrote not for historians. He wanted people to learn to live on the example of historical persons; so he combined them into pairs according to the similarity of characters and actions, and at the end of each pair put a comparison: who was better in what and in what is worse. For the modern reader, these are the most boring sections, but for Plutarch they were the main ones. That’s how it looked.

Aristide and Cato the Elder

Aristide was an Athenian statesman during the Greco-Persian wars. At Marathon he was one of the commanders, but he himself refused the command, transferring it to the leader, whose plan he considered to be the best. At Salamis in the decisive battle against Xerxes he repulsed the Persians from the island, on which a monument was erected in honor of this battle. Under Plateus, he commanded all the Athenian units in the Allied Greek army. He had the nickname Just. His rival was Themistocles; the discords were such that Aristide said: “It would be best for the Athenians to take and throw Me and Themistocles into the abyss.” It came to ostracism, the “court of the shards”: everyone wrote on the pottery the name of someone whom he considered dangerous for the fatherland. Aristide was approached by an illiterate peasant: “Write here for me: Aristide.” – “Do you know him?” – ” No, but I’m tired of hearing: Fair and Just. “Aristide wrote and he had to go into exile, but then, before Salamis, he himself came to Themistocles and said:” Let’s quarrel, we have a common thing: you have better command, and I will be your adviser. “After the victory, beating Greek cities from the Persians, he encouraged them to be friendly with Athens, not Sparta, because of this, a large naval alliance was formed, Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed allied fees among them so justly, that everyone was satisfied. ivilis that while he did not take bribes and returned from a detour in the same poor man as he was when he died, he did not leave the means even to funerals. Athenians buried him at public expense, and his daughters was married with a dowry from the state treasury. Fair and Just. “Aristide wrote and he had to go into exile, but then, before Salamis, he himself went to Themistocles and said:” Let’s quarrel, we have a common thing: you are better able to command, and I will be your adviser ” After the victory, beating Greek cities from the Persians, he encouraged them to be friendly with Athens, not Sparta, because of this, a large naval alliance was formed, Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed allied fees among them so justly that everyone was satisfied. were surprised at all that while he he did not take bribes and returned from the detour as poor as he was, when he died, he did not leave money even for the funeral, the Athenians buried him at public expense, and his daughters were married to a dowry from the treasury. Fair and Just. “Aristide wrote and he had to go into exile, but then, before Salamis, he himself went to Themistocles and said:” Let’s quarrel, we have a common thing: you are better able to command, and I will be your adviser ” After the victory, beating Greek cities from the Persians, he encouraged them to be friendly with Athens, not Sparta, because of this, a large naval alliance was formed, Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed allied fees among them so justly that everyone was satisfied. were surprised at all that while he he did not take bribes and returned from detour as poor as he was, when he died, he did not leave money even for the funeral, the Athenians buried him at the state expense, and his daughters were married to a dowry from the treasury. before Salamis, he himself came to Themistocles and said: “Let’s quarrel, it’s common for us: you know how to command better, and I’ll be your adviser.” After the victory, beating the Persians from the Greek cities, he by his courtesy encouraged them to be friends with Athens, and not with Sparta. This formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed the union fees among them so justly that everyone was satisfied. Most of all they were amazed that at the same time he did not take bribes and returned from the detour as poor as he was. When he died, he did not leave money even for the funeral; Athenians buried him at the expense of the state, and his daughters were married to a dowry from the treasury. before Salamis, he himself came to Themistocles and said: “Let’s quarrel, it’s common for us: you know how to command better, and I’ll be your adviser.” After the victory, beating the Persians from the Greek cities, he by his courtesy encouraged them to be friends with Athens, and not with Sparta. This formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed the union fees among them so justly that everyone was satisfied. Most of all they were amazed that at the same time he did not take bribes and returned from the detour as poor as he was. When he died, he did not leave money even for the funeral; Athenians buried him at the expense of the state, and his daughters were married to a dowry from the treasury. discouraging the Persians from Greek cities, he encouraged them to be friendly with Athens, and not with Sparta. This formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed the union fees among them so justly that everyone was satisfied. Most of all they were amazed that at the same time he did not take bribes and returned from the detour as poor as he was. When he died, he did not leave money even for the funeral; Athenians buried him at the expense of the state, and his daughters were married to a dowry from the treasury. discouraging the Persians from Greek cities, he encouraged them to be friendly with Athens, and not with Sparta. This formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed the union fees among them so justly that everyone was satisfied. Most of all they were amazed that at the same time he did not take bribes and returned from the detour as poor as he was. When he died, he did not leave money even for the funeral; Athenians buried him at the expense of the state, and his daughters were married to a dowry from the treasury. that at the same time he did not take bribes and returned from detour as poor as he was. When he died, he did not leave money even for the funeral; Athenians buried him at the expense of the state, and his daughters were married to a dowry from the treasury. that at the same time he did not take bribes and returned from detour as poor as he was. When he died, he did not leave money even for the funeral; Athenians buried him at the expense of the state, and his daughters were married to a dowry from the treasury.

Cato the Elder in his youth participated in the II Punic War of Rome with Carthage, in his mature years fought in Spain and against the Asiatic king of Antiochus in Greece, and died on the eve of the III Punic war, which he himself persistently urged: each speech he ended with the words: “And besides that, it is necessary to destroy Carthage. ” He was of an ignorant clan and only with his own merits came to the highest state office – censorship: in Rome it was a rarity. Cato was proud of this and in every speech he spoke of his merits; However, when asked why he had not yet erected a statue, he said: “Let them better ask why they did not erect, than why they erected.” The censor was to follow the social mores: Cato struggled with luxury, expelled Greek teachers from Rome for the fact that their lessons undermine the severe morals of their ancestors, He ruled out a senator from the Senate for kissing his wife in public. He said: “Do not stand the city where the red fish are paid more than for the labor ox.” He himself set an example for his harsh way of life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same as his farm laborers, he raised a son himself, wrote for him in large letters the history of Rome, and a book of councils on agriculture, and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman general Scipio, the victor of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overpowered all, and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estate. As Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It’s hard when life is lived with some, and you have to justify yourself before others.” that he kissed his wife in public. He said: “Do not stand the city where the red fish are paid more than for the labor ox.” He himself set an example for his harsh way of life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same as his farm laborers, he raised his son himself, wrote for him in large letters the history of Rome, and a book of councils on agriculture, and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman general Scipio, the victor of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overpowered all, and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estate. As Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It’s hard when life is lived with some, and you have to justify yourself before others.” that he kissed his wife in public. He said: “Do not stand the city where the red fish are paid more than for the labor ox.” He himself set an example for his harsh way of life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same as his farm laborers, he raised his son himself, wrote for him in large letters the history of Rome, and a book of councils on agriculture, and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman general Scipio, the victor of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overpowered all, and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estate. As Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It’s hard when life is lived with some, and you have to justify yourself before others.” where they pay more for red fish than for working ox. “He himself set an example for his harsh life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same as his laborers, he raised his son himself, wrote for him in large letters the history of Rome, and the book of the councils for agriculture, and many other things, he had many enemies, including the best Roman general Scipio, the victor of the Carthaginian Hannibal, he overpowered all, and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek learning, and he retired to his As Nestor, he survived When generation, already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It is hard when life is lived with one and have to justify to others.” where they pay more for red fish than for working ox. “He himself set an example for his harsh life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same as his laborers, he raised his son himself, wrote for him in large letters the history of Rome, and the book of the councils for agriculture, and many other things, he had many enemies, including the best Roman general Scipio, the victor of the Carthaginian Hannibal, he overpowered all, and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek learning, and he retired to his As Nestor, he survived When generation, already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It is hard when life is lived with one and have to justify to others.” he brought up his son, he wrote for him in large letters the history of Rome, and a book of councils on agriculture, and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman general Scipio, the victor of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overpowered all, and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estate. As Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It’s hard when life is lived with some, and you have to justify yourself before others.” he brought up his son, he wrote for him in large letters the history of Rome, and a book of councils on agriculture, and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman general Scipio, the victor of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overpowered all, and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estate. As Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It’s hard when life is lived with some, and you have to justify yourself before others.” and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estate. As Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It’s hard when life is lived with some, and you have to justify yourself before others.” and Scipio accused of exceeding power and unacceptable love of Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estate. As Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: “It’s hard when life is lived with some, and you have to justify yourself before others.”

Comparison. In the fight against rivals Cato proved himself better than Aristide. Aristide had to go into exile, and Cato argued with rivals in the courts to a very old age and always emerged victorious. At the same time Aristide was a serious contender, One Themistocles, a man of a low kind, and Cato had to break through into politics when the government was firmly in the know, and yet he achieved the goal. – In the fight against external enemies, Aristide fought under Marathon, Salamis, and Plataeus, but everywhere in the second roles, and Cato himself won victories in Spain and Greece. However, the enemies with whom Cato fought, did not go to any comparison with the terrifying hordes of Xerxes. – Aristide died in poverty, and it’s not good: a person should strive for prosperity in his home, then the state will also be in abundance. Cato has shown himself to be an excellent master, and this is better. On the other hand, philosophers say: “Only the gods do not know the need: the less a person needs, the closer he is to the gods.” In this case, poverty, which comes not from waste, but from moderation of desires, like Aristide, is better than wealth, even such as that of Cato: is not it a contradiction that Cato teaches to grow rich, and he boasts of moderation? – Aristide was modest, he was praised by others, Cato was proud of his merits and remembered them in all his speeches; this is not good. Aristide was non-whistling, during the war he honestly helped his ill-wishers Themistocles. Cato, from the rivalry with Scipio, nearly prevented his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then forced this great man to retire and retire from Rome; this is more than not good. the less the person needs, the closer he is to the gods. “In this case, poverty, which comes not from waste, but from moderation of desires, like Aristide, is better than wealth, even such as that of Cato: is not it a contradiction that Cato learns to grow rich, and he boasts of moderation? “” Aristides was modest, others praised him, Cato was proud of his merits and remembered them in all his speeches, which is not good. “Aristide was unselfish, during the war he honestly helped his ill-wishers Themistocles. competition with Scipio almost prevented his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then forced this great man to leave the business and leave Rome, this is definitely not good. the less the person needs, the closer he is to the gods. “In this case, poverty, which comes not from waste, but from moderation of desires, like Aristide, is better than wealth, even such as that of Cato: is not it a contradiction that Cato learns to grow rich, and he boasts of moderation? “” Aristides was modest, others praised him, Cato was proud of his merits and remembered them in all his speeches, which is not good. “Aristide was unselfish, during the war he honestly helped his ill-wishers Themistocles. competition with Scipio almost prevented his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then forced this great man to leave the business and leave Rome, this is definitely not good. than wealth, even such as that of Cato: is it not a contradiction that Cato teaches to grow rich, and he boasts of moderation? – Aristide was modest, he was praised by others, Cato was proud of his merits and remembered them in all his speeches; this is not good. Aristide was non-whistling, during the war he honestly helped his ill-wishers Themistocles. Cato, from the rivalry with Scipio, nearly prevented his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then forced this great man to retire and retire from Rome; this is more than not good. than wealth, even such as that of Cato: is it not a contradiction that Cato teaches to grow rich, and he boasts of moderation? – Aristide was modest, he was praised by others, Cato was proud of his merits and remembered them in all his speeches; this is not good. Aristide was non-whistling, during the war he honestly helped his ill-wishers Themistocles. Cato, from the rivalry with Scipio, nearly prevented his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then forced this great man to retire and retire from Rome; this is more than not good. Cato, from the rivalry with Scipio, nearly prevented his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then forced this great man to retire and retire from Rome; this is more than not good. Cato, from the rivalry with Scipio, nearly prevented his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then forced this great man to retire and retire from Rome; this is more than not good.

Agesilaus and Pompeii

Agesilaus was a Spartan king, a model of the ancient valor of the times of the beginning of the fall of morals. He was small, chrome, quick and unpretentious; his name was to listen to the singer, who sang like a nightingale, he answered: “I heard a real nightingale.” In campaigns he lived at all in sight, and slept in the temples: “What people do not see, let the gods see.” The soldiers loved him so much that the government reprimanded him: “They love you more than the fatherland.” He was elevated to the throne by the famous general Lysander, declaring his rival the illegitimate son of the former tsar; Lysander hoped to rule himself because of the back of Agesilaus, but he quickly took power into his own hands. Agesilaus saved Sparta twice. The first time he went to war with Persia and won it, as Alexander later, but was ordered to return, because the whole of Greece rebelled against Sparta. He returned and struck the rebels in the rear; the war dragged on, but Sparta resisted. The second time the Spartans were defeated by the Thebans and approached the city itself; Agesilaus with a small detachment took up defense, and the Thebans did not dare to attack. According to the ancient law, soldiers who fled from the enemy were shamefully deprived of their civil rights; By observing this law, Sparta would have remained without citizens. Agesilaus announced: “Let today the law sleeps, and tomorrow wakes up” – and this came out of the situation. For the war needed money, Agesilaus went to earn them over the sea: there Egypt rebelled against Persia, and he was called to be the leader. In Egypt, he liked the hard cane most of all: from it you could weave even more modest wreaths than in Sparta. Between the insurgents a split broke out, Agesilai joined those who paid more: “I do not fight for Egypt, but for the profit of Sparta.” Here he died; His body was embalmed and taken home.

Pompey rose in the First Roman Civil War under the dictator Sulla, was the strongest man in Rome between the first and second civil wars, and died in the Second Civil War against Caesar. He defeated the rebels in Africa and Spain, Spartacus in Italy, pirates throughout the Mediterranean, King Mithridates in Asia Minor, King Tigran in Armenia, King Aristobulus in Jerusalem, and celebrated three triumphs over three parts of the world. He said that he received any post earlier than he expected himself, and made it earlier than others expected. He was brave and simple; At sixty, he practiced combat exercises alongside his ordinary soldiers. In Athens on the arch in his honor was the inscription: “The more you are a man, the more you are a god.” But he was too direct to be a politician. The Senate was afraid and did not trust him, he concluded an alliance with the politicians Crassus and Caesar against the Senate. Krasé died, and Caesar gained strength, conquered Gaul and began to threaten both the Senate and Pompey, Pompey did not dare to wage a civil war in Italy – he collected troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but he preferred to fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: “At last I will not fight with hunger and deprivation, but with people!” At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed. Krasé died, and Caesar gained strength, conquered Gaul and began to threaten both the Senate and Pompey, Pompey did not dare to wage a civil war in Italy – he collected troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but he preferred to fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: “At last I will not fight with hunger and deprivation, but with people!” At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed. Krasé died, and Caesar gained strength, conquered Gaul and began to threaten both the Senate and Pompey,... Pompey did not dare to wage a civil war in Italy – he collected troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but he preferred to fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: “At last I will not fight with hunger and deprivation, but with people!” At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed. conquered Gaul and began to threaten both the Senate and Pompey, Pompey did not dare to wage a civil war in Italy – he collected troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but he preferred to fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: “At last I will not fight with hunger and deprivation, but with people!” At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed. conquered Gaul and began to threaten both the Senate and Pompey, Pompey did not dare to wage a civil war in Italy – he collected troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but he preferred to fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: “At last I will not fight with hunger and deprivation, but with people!” At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but he preferred to fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: “At last I will not fight with hunger and deprivation, but with people!” At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but he preferred to fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: “At last I will not fight with hunger and deprivation, but with people!” At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed. At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed. At Pharsale, Caesar routed Pompey completely. Pompey was lost in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: “Are you sure that you would have taken advantage of the victory better than Caesar?” Pompey fled the ship for the sea, to the Egyptian king. The Alexandrian nobles judged that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the beach at the landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Pompey’s head and seal were brought to him. Caesar cried and ordered the executioners to be executed.

Comparison. Pompeii came to power only with his own merits, Agesilaus did not stealthily declare the legacy of another heir, Pompey supported Sulla, Agesilaus – Lysander, but Pompey Sulla always paid homage, Agesilaus did Ligandra ungratefully ousted – in all this Pompey’s behavior was much more commendable. However, Agesilaus discovered more of the state wisdom than Pompey, for example, when he broke off the victorious campaign on orders and returned to save the fatherland, or when no one knew what to do with the defeated victims, and he came up with the idea that “for one day the laws are asleep.” The victories of Pompey over Mithridates and other kings are, of course, much greater than the victories of Agesilaus over the small Greek militias. And mercy for the defeated Pompey knew how to show better – pirates settled over towns and villages, and Tigran made his ally; Agesilaus was much more vindictive. However, in his main war, Agesilaus showed more self-control and more courage than Pompey. He was not afraid of reproaches for returning from Persia without a victory, and did not hesitate to join the small army to defend Sparta from invading enemies. And Pompey first left Rome in front of the small forces of Caesar, and then in Greece was ashamed to delay time and took the fight, when it was beneficial not to him, but to his opponent. Both ended their lives in Egypt, but Pompey swam there necessarily, Agesilaus out of self-interest, and Pompey fell, deceived by his enemies, Agesilaus himself deceived his friends: here again Pompey deserves sympathy. that he returned from Persia without victory, and did not hesitate to join the small army to defend Sparta from the invading enemies. And Pompey first left Rome in front of the small forces of Caesar, and then in Greece was ashamed to delay time and took the fight, when it was beneficial not to him, but to his opponent. Both ended their lives in Egypt, but Pompey swam there necessarily, Agesilaus out of self-interest, and Pompey fell, deceived by his enemies, Agesilaus himself deceived his friends: here again Pompey deserves sympathy. that he returned from Persia without victory, and did not hesitate to join the small army to defend Sparta from the invading enemies. And Pompey first left Rome in front of the small forces of Caesar, and then in Greece was ashamed to delay time and took the fight, when it was beneficial not to him, but to his opponent. Both ended their lives in Egypt, but Pompey swam there necessarily, Agesilaus out of self-interest, and Pompey fell, deceived by his enemies, Agesilaus himself deceived his friends: here again Pompey deserves sympathy.

Demosthenes and Cicero

Demosthenes was the greatest Athenian speaker. He was naturally tongue-tied and weak-voiced, he exercised himself, speaking speeches with pebbles in his mouth, or on the shore of a noisy sea, or going up a mountain; for these exercises, he spent a long time living in a cave, and to be ashamed to return to people ahead of time, he shaved half his head. Speaking in the People’s Assembly, he said:

“The Athenians, you will have an adviser in me, even if you do not want to, but never – a flattery, even if you want.” Other speakers were given bribes so that they would say what was pleasing to the bribe taker; Demosthenes was given bribes so that he would only be silent. He was asked: “Why are you silent?” – he answered: “I have a fever”; Over him joked: “Gold rush!” Greece was attacked by King Philip of Macedon, Demosthenes made a miracle – with his speeches rallied against him intractable Greek cities. Philip managed to defeat the Greeks in battle, but was gloomy at the thought that Demosthenes could destroy all that the king achieved by victories of many years in one speech. The Persian king considered Demosthenes his main ally against Philip and sent him much gold; Demosthenes took it: “He was the best at praising the prowess of his ancestors, but he could not imitate them.” His enemies, Having caught him in bribery, they were sent into exile; Leaving, he exclaimed: “O Athena, why do you love the three most evil animals so much: the owl, the serpent and the people?” After the death of Alexander of Macedon Demosthenes again raised the Greeks to war against the Macedonians, the Greeks were again defeated, Demosthenes escaped in the temple. The Macedonians ordered him to leave, he said: “Now, only I will write a will”; took out the writing plates, pensively raised the lead and fell dead: in the lead he carried with him poison. On the statue in his honor it was written: “If Demosthenes, your power was equal to your mind, it would never be for Macedonians to own Greece.” After the death of Alexander of Macedon Demosthenes again raised the Greeks to war against the Macedonians, the Greeks were again defeated, Demosthenes escaped in the temple. The Macedonians ordered him to leave, he said: “Now, only I will write a will”; took out the writing plates, pensively raised the lead and fell dead: in the lead he carried with him poison. On the statue in his honor it was written: “If Demosthenes, your power was equal to your mind, it would never be for Macedonians to own Greece.” After the death of Alexander of Macedon Demosthenes again raised the Greeks to war against the Macedonians, the Greeks were again defeated, Demosthenes escaped in the temple. The Macedonians ordered him to leave, he said: “Now, only I will write a will”; took out the writing plates, pensively raised the lead and fell dead: in the lead he carried with him poison. On the statue in his honor it was written: “If Demosthenes, your power was equal to your mind, it would never be for Macedonians to own Greece.”

Cicero was the greatest Roman speaker. When he learned eloquence in conquered Greece, his teacher exclaimed: “VYA, the last glory of Greece goes to the Romans!” He considered Demosthenes to be an example for all speakers; to the question of which of the best speeches of Demosthenes, he replied: “The longest.” As once Cato the Elder, he is of an ignorant race, only thanks to his oratorical talent came from the lowest state posts to the highest. He had to act as both a defender and a prosecutor; when he was told: “You have more people killed by accusations than saved by defenses,” he replied: “So I was more honest than eloquent.” Each position in Rome was occupied for a year, and then it was necessary to manage a province for a year; usually governors used it for gain, Cicero – never. In year, when Cicero was consul and stood at the head of the state, a conspiracy of Catilina against the Roman Republic was opened, but there was no direct evidence against Catilina; But Cicero pronounced against him such an accusatory speech that he fled from Rome, and his accomplices, on the orders of Cicero, were executed. Then the enemies took advantage of this to drive Cicero out of Rome; a year later he returned, but his influence was weakened, he increasingly retired from business to the estate and wrote essays on philosophy and politics. When Caesar came to power, Cicero did not have the heart to fight him; but when, after the assassination of Caesar, Antonius began to tear himself to power, Cicero was the last to rush into the struggle, and his speeches against Antony were famous just as Demosthenes’s speeches against Philip. But strength was on Antony’s side; Cicero had to flee, he was overtaken and killed.

Comparison. Which of the two speakers was more talented – about this, says Plutarch, he does not dare to judge: it is only the one who knows both Latin and Greek equally. The main advantage of Demosthenes’ speeches was weight and strength, Cicero’s speeches were flexibility and ease; Demosthenes called enemies the brute, Cicero – joker. Of these two extremes, perhaps, De-Moesfenova is still better. In addition, Demosthenes if he praised himself, it is not intrusive, Cicero was vain to ridiculous. But Demosthenes was an orator, and only an orator, and Cicero left many works on philosophy, politics, and rhetoric: this versatility, of course, is a great dignity. The political influence of their speeches was both enormous; but Demosthenes did not occupy high posts and did not pass, so to speak, tests by authority, and Cicero was consul and brilliantly proved himself, suppressing the plot of Catilina. The more indisputable Cicero surpassed Demosthenes, so it’s disinterested: he did not take bribes in the provinces or gifts from friends; Demosthenes, of course, received money from the Persian king and was sent into exile for bribery. But in exile, Demosthenes behaved better than Cicero: he continued to unite the Greeks in the struggle against Philip and in many respects succeeded, while Cicero lost heart, idly indulged in longing and then did not dare to withstand tyranny for a long time. Similarly, the death of Demosthenes took more dignified. Cicero, though the old man, was afraid of death and rushed about, trying to escape the murderers, Demosthenes himself took poison, as befits a man of courage. no gifts from friends; Demosthenes, of course, received money from the Persian king and was sent into exile for bribery. But in exile, Demosthenes behaved better than Cicero: he continued to unite the Greeks in the struggle against Philip and in many respects succeeded, while Cicero lost heart, idly indulged in longing and then did not dare to withstand tyranny for a long time. Similarly, the death of Demosthenes took more dignified. Cicero, though the old man, was afraid of death and rushed about, trying to escape the murderers, Demosthenes himself took poison, as befits a man of courage. no gifts from friends; Demosthenes, of course, received money from the Persian king and was sent into exile for bribery. But in exile, Demosthenes behaved better than Cicero: he continued to unite the Greeks in the struggle against Philip and in many respects succeeded, while Cicero lost heart, idly indulged in longing and then did not dare to withstand tyranny for a long time. Similarly, the death of Demosthenes took more dignified. Cicero, though the old man, was afraid of death and rushed about, trying to escape the murderers, Demosthenes himself took poison, as befits a man of courage. Similarly, the death of Demosthenes took more dignified. Cicero, though the old man, was afraid of death and rushed about, trying to escape the murderers, Demosthenes himself took poison, as befits a man of courage. Similarly, the death of Demosthenes took more worthy. Cicero, though the old man, was afraid of death and rushed about, trying to escape the murderers, Demosthenes himself took poison, as befits a man of courage.

Demetrius and Anthony

Demetrius Poliorket was the son of Antigone the One-Eyes, the oldest and strongest of the generals of Alexander the Great. When Alexander’s wars began for power between his generals, Antigonus conquered Asia Minor and Syria, and Demetrius sent to beat Greece from the power of Macedonia. He brought bread to the hungry Athenes; he made a mistake in the language, corrected it, he exclaimed: “For this amendment I give you five thousand measures of bread!” He was proclaimed a god, settled in the temple of Athena, and he arranged there sprees with his friends, and from the Athenians taxed them on the rouge and whitewashed. The city of Rhodes refused to obey him, Demetrios besieged him, but did not take it, because he was afraid to burn the artist’s studio of Protogen, which was near the city wall itself. The besieged siege towers were so huge that the Rhodians sold them for scrap, on the money earned erected gigantic statue – Colossus of Rhodes. The nickname of his Polyorket means “huckster”. But in the decisive battle, Antigonus and Demetrius were defeated, Antigonus perished, Demetrius fled, neither the Athenians nor the other Greeks wanted to take him. He seized the Macedonian kingdom for several years, but did not deter him. The Macedonians were disgusted by his arrogance: he walked in scarlet clothes with a gold border, in purple boots, in a cloak sewn with stars, and accepted petitioners unkindly: “I have no time.” “If there is no time, then there is nothing to be a king!” an old woman cried to him. Having lost Macedonia, he rushed about Asia Minor, his troops left, he was surrounded and surrendered to the king-rival. He sent his son the order: But in the decisive battle, Antigonus and Demetrius were defeated, Antigonus perished, Demetrius fled, neither the Athenians nor the other Greeks wanted to take him. He seized the Macedonian kingdom for several years, but did not deter him. The Macedonians were disgusted by his arrogance: he walked in scarlet clothes with a gold border, in purple boots, in a cloak sewn with stars, and accepted petitioners unkindly: “I have no time.” “If there is no time, then there is nothing to be a king!” an old woman cried to him. Having lost Macedonia, he rushed about Asia Minor, his troops left, he was surrounded and surrendered to the king-rival. He sent his son the order: But in the decisive battle, Antigonus and Demetrius were defeated, Antigonus perished, Demetrius fled, neither the Athenians nor the other Greeks wanted to take him. He seized the Macedonian kingdom for several years, but did not deter him. The Macedonians were disgusted by his arrogance: he walked in scarlet clothes with a gold border, in purple boots, in a cloak sewn with stars, and accepted petitioners unkindly: “I have no time.” “If there is no time, then there is nothing to be a king!” an old woman cried to him. Having lost Macedonia, he rushed about Asia Minor, his troops left, he was surrounded and surrendered to the king-rival. He sent his son the order: he walked in scarlet clothes with a gold border, in purple boots, in a cloak sewn with stars, and he accepted the petitioners unkindly: “I have no time.” “If there is no time, then there is nothing to be a king!” an old woman cried to him. Having lost Macedonia, he rushed about Asia Minor, his troops left, he was surrounded and surrendered to the king-rival. He sent his son the order: he walked in scarlet clothes with a gold border, in purple boots, in a cloak sewn with stars, and he accepted the petitioners unkindly: “I have no time.” “If there is no time, then there is nothing to be a king!” an old woman cried to him. Having lost Macedonia, he rushed about Asia Minor, his troops left, he was surrounded and surrendered to the king-rival. He sent his son the order:

“Consider me dead, and whatever I write to you, do not listen.” The son offered himself as a prisoner instead of his father – unsuccessfully. Three years later, Demetrius died in captivity, drinking and rioting.

Mark Antony rose in the Second Roman Civil War, fighting for Caesar against Pompey, but perished, fighting for power in the III Civil War against Octavian, the adopted son of Caesar. In his youth he loved the wild life, drove his mistresses with servants on hikes, feasted in lush tents, rode a chariot drawn by lions; but to the people was generous, and with the soldiers is simple, and he was loved. In the year of Caesar’s murder, Antony was consul, but he had to share power with Octavian. Together, they staged a massacre of wealthy and distinguished Republicans – then Cicero died; Then together they defeated the last Republicans Brutus and Cassius, who killed Caesar, Brutus and Cassius committed suicide. Octavian went to pacify Rome and the West, Anthony – to conquer the East. Asian kings bowed to him, the townspeople held in honor of his violent processions, his generals triumphed over the Parthians and Armenians. The Egyptian queen Cleopatra came forward to meet him with a magnificent retinue, like Aphrodite to meet Dionysus; they celebrated the wedding, feasted together, drank, played dice, hunted, spending uncountable money and, worse, time. When he demanded two taxes from the people in one year, he was told: “If you are God, then make us two summers and two winters!” He wanted to become a king in Alexandria and from there to extend his power to Rome; The Romans were indignant, Octavian took advantage of this and went to war with him. They met in a sea battle; in the midst of the battle Cleopatra turned her ships into flight, Anthony rushed after her, and the victory remained behind Octavian. Octavian besieged them in Alexandria; Antony summoned him to a duel, Octavian replied: “There are many ways to death.”

Comparison. These two generals, who have begun well and have ended badly, we will compare to see how a good person should not behave. So, the Spartans at the banquets drank the slave’s drunk and showed the young men how ugly the drunk was. – Demetrius received his power without difficulty, from his father’s hands; Antony also went to her, relying only on his strengths and abilities; this he inspires more respect. – But Demetrius ruled over the Macedonians, accustomed to the royal power, Anthony also wanted the Romans, accustomed to the republic, to subordinate his royal power; it’s much worse. In addition, Demetrius won his own victories, Antony led the war with the hands of his generals. – Both loved luxury and debauchery, but Demetrius at any moment was ready to change from a sloth to a fighter, Antony, for Cleopatra’s sake, postponed any business and was like Hercules in slavery at Omphala. But Demetrius in his entertainments was cruel and wicked, profaning even fornication even temples, and Antony did not. Demetrius with his incontinence harmed others, Antony himself. Demetrius was defeated because the army retreated from him, Antony – because he himself left his army: the first is to blame for having inspired such hatred for himself, the second – that he betrayed this love for himself. – Both died a lethal death, but Demetrius’ death was more shameful: he agreed to become a prisoner to drink and overeat in excess of three years, Antony preferred to kill himself than to surrender to the enemies. that the army retreated from him, Anthony – because he himself left his army: the first is to blame that he inspired such hatred towards himself, the second – that he betrayed such a love for himself. – Both died a lethal death, but Demetrius’ death was more shameful: he agreed to become a prisoner to drink and overeat in excess of three years, Antony preferred to kill himself than to surrender to the enemies. that the army retreated from him, Anthony – because he himself left his army: the first is to blame that he inspired such hatred towards himself, the second – that he betrayed such a love for himself. – Both died a lethal death, but Demetrius’ death was more shameful: he agreed to become a prisoner to drink and overeat in excess of three years, Antony preferred to kill himself than to surrender to the enemies.


“Comparative biographies” of Plutarch in brief summary