1. What are the main areas of fertilizer production in the country?
Basically, the production of fertilizers is concentrated in the Central, Central Black Earth, North-West, Ural and Volga regions. As noted above, this is due either to the proximity of raw materials, or the presence of a consumer.
2. Study the chemical products surrounding you. Which of them produced the main chemical industry, and which ones – polymer chemistry?
The basic chemistry produces mineral fertilizers, soda, sulfuric acid, chlorine and chlorine products, various acids and alkalis, liquefied gases, chemicals and potash. Surely you have a batch of soda in the kitchen, which is most likely produced in the city of Sterlitamak.
More recently, chlorine solutions have been used for bleaching tissues and disinfecting. Chlorine is one of the most important products of the chemical industry. Every year in the world, tens of millions of tons of chlorine are produced to produce disinfectant and bleaching agents, hydrochloric acid, chlorides of many metals and non-metals, plastics, chlorinated solvents, for opening ores, separation and purification of metals, for water disinfection and for many other purposes. However, chlorine is a poisonous suffocating gas, when it enters the lungs it causes a burn of lung tissue, asphyxiation.
Recently, more and more often, substances that do not contain chlorine have been used in everyday life.
Of the products surrounding you, there are substantially more polymer products. These are rubber products, fabrics of chemical fibers, plastics and almost all household chemicals.
3. The chemistry of polymers arose at the forefront of scientific progress. Explain this statement.
Despite the fact that the term “polymers” was introduced by the Swedish scientist J. Ya. Berzelius as far back as 1833, the chemistry of polymers appeared only in the 1930s.
Polymers are substances whose molecules consist of a large number of repeating units. To obtain such compounds, a high level of development not only of science but also of production is necessary.
4. Tell us about the impact of the chemical industry on the environment. How to explain the negative impact of the chemical industry on nature? Is it possible to reduce it?
The chemical industry produces new compounds that are not inherent in the natural environment or analogues of natural compounds in abnormally large quantities.
Therefore, during the rapid development of the chemical industry, the term “chemical contamination of the biosphere” also appeared: the entry of chemicals into living organisms and their habitats in quantities exceeding the normative ones. Soils and water, air and living creatures are increasingly polluted with industrial and domestic wastewater, petroleum products, mineral fertilizers and pesticides, heavy metals, radioactive waste. Various measures are taken to reduce chemical pollution: development of new production technologies, control of emissions and sinks, etc. Unfortunately, these measures are still not enough.
5. What are the branches of the chemical industry that are important for human health?
This is primarily pharmaceuticals – a branch of the chemical industry that produces drugs. Hygiene products are products of the chemistry of polymers and the chlorine industry.
6. In recent years, much attention is paid to the ecology of the home. In your opinion, does the production of the chemical industry affect it?
The concept of “home ecology” is associated with the desire for a natural habitat. And in this case, the more chemical products in the house, the worse.