(1803 – 1873)
(1803-1873) is a poet.
Tyutchev early discovered unusual talents and abilities for teaching. He received a good home education, which since 1813 was led by S. E. Raich, a poet-translator, a connoisseur of classical antiquity and Italian literature. Under the influence of the teacher Tyutchev was introduced to literary creativity early and already at the age of 12 Horace successfully translated. In 1819, a free transcription of “The Epistles of Horace to Maecenas” was published – Tyutchev’s first appearance in print.
In the autumn of 1819 he entered the verbal department of the Moscow University: he listened to lectures on the theory of literature and the history of Russian literature, on archeology and the history of fine arts.
After graduating from the university in 1821, Tyutchev travels to St. Petersburg, where he receives the place of a supernumerary official of the Russian diplomatic mission in Bavaria. In July 1822, he went to Munich and spent 22 years there.
Abroad, Tyutchev translates Heine, Schiller, and other European poets, and this helps him to acquire his voice in poetry, to develop a special, unique style.
A significant event in the literary fate of the poet was a selection of his poems in Pushkin’s “Contemporary” (24 poems) under the heading “Poems sent from Germany” (1836).
Then in Tyutchev’s publication there is a long pause, but it is at this time that his political worldview crystallizes. In 1843-1850 Tiutchev appeared with political articles “Russia and Germany”, “Russia and the Revolution”, “Papacy and the Roman Question”, conceives the book “Russia and the West.”
In the autumn of 1844 Tiutchev finally returned to his homeland. In 1848 he received the post of senior censor under the ministry, and in 1858 appointed chairman of the “Committee of Foreign Censorship”.
Since the late 40-ies begins a new rise in Tyutchev’s lyrical creativity. NA Nekrasov and IS Turgenev put it on a par with Pushkin and Lermontov. In the form of an attachment to the magazine “Sovremennik” 92 poems are printed. In one issue of the magazine was published an article by IS Turgenev “A few words about the poems of FI Tyutchev,” containing a prophecy: Tiutchev “created speeches that are not destined to die.” In the future, a high appreciation of Tyutchev’s poetry will be expressed by writers and critics of various literary groups and trends. All this meant that late, but true glory came to Tyutchev.
But the changes and failures in his personal life, the disappointment in the viability of the Russian state (after the defeat in the Crimean War of 1853-1856) led to the fact that the second collection of poems, published in 1868, did not provoke such a lively response in Russian life and disagreed with difficulty. At the end of 1872 the poet’s health deteriorated sharply, and in a few months Tyutchev was gone.
The second “resurrection” Tyutchev began at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, when the established school of Russian Symbolists proclaimed it his predecessor. The epoch of symbolism fixed the perception of Tyutchev as a classic of Russian literature.
The artistic fate of the poet is unusual: it is the fate of the last Russian romanticist who created in the era of the triumph of realism and yet remained... faithful to the behests of romantic art. Tiutchev’s romanticism consists primarily in understanding and depicting nature. The predominance of landscapes is one of the signs of his lyrics. At the same time, the image of nature and the idea of nature are linked together in Tiutchev: his landscapes receive a symbolic-philosophical meaning, and the thought acquires expressiveness.
The nature of Tyutchev is changeable, dynamic. She does not know rest, everything is in the struggle of opposing forces, she is many-sided, full of sounds, colors, smells. The lyrics of the poet are permeated with ecstasy before grandeur and beauty, infinity and variety of the natural kingdom. Characteristic of the beginning of his poems: “How good are you, oh the night sea…”, “There is an initial short, but a marvelous time in the fall…” (1857), “How happy the roar of summer storms…” (1851) “I love the storm in early May…”.
Tyutchev’s transitional, intermediate moments of nature are especially attractive. He depicts an autumn day, reminiscent of a recent summer (“There are in the autumn the original…”), or the autumn evening is the forerunner of winter (“Autumn Evening” (1830) .He sings a thunderstorm not in the height of summer, but “spring first thunder “” in early May. “He paints the first awakening of nature, a turning point from winter to spring (” The land is still sad, and the air breathes in spring… “(1836).
Nature in verses Tyutchev is humanized, spiritualized. Like a living being, she feels, breathes, rejoices and is sad. In itself, the animation of nature is usually in poetry. But for Tyutchev this is not just an embodiment, not just a metaphor: he took the living beauty of nature “and did not understand as his imagination, but as truth.” The poet’s landscapes are imbued with a typically romantic feeling that this is not just a description of nature, but dramatic episodes of some kind of continuous action (Spring Water (1830), Winter Is Not Worried (1836), How Jovial is the roar of summer storms. “,” The Enchantress in the Winter… “(1852).
Man in Tyutchev’s poetry is twofold: he is weak and majestic at the same time. Fragile, like a reed, doomed to death, weak in the face of fate, he is great with his craving for the boundless. For the poet undoubtedly the greatness of a man who turned out to be a participant or at least a witness of decisive historical events.
One of the central themes in Tyutchev’s lyrics was the theme of love. Love for him “and bliss, and hopelessness”, a strained, tragic feeling, bringing suffering and happiness to man, “the fatal” duel of two hearts (“Oh, how deadly we love…” (1851), “I knew eyes, Oh, those eyes! .. “(1852),” Last Love “(1851-1854),” There are also in my suffering stagnation… “(1865) and others). “Blissful-fatal” feeling, requiring a higher intensity of mental strength,
The experience of Russian realism did not pass for Tyutchev without a trace. But all these changes did not affect the depth of his romantic worldview.
The sensation of the catastrophe of existence, which does not allow us to seek salvation in ideals and even dream about transforming life, makes his work a forerunner of literary trends at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and above all of symbolism.