Panferov Fedor Ivanovich (1896-1960), Russian writer. Was born on September 20 (October 2) in 1896 in the village. Pavlovka of the Saratov Gubernia. in the family of a poor peasant, he worked in his native village for 10 years, then in the cities of the Volga region, where his hunger was chasing him, as a “boy” in a merchant’s shop, an auxiliary worker. Not long after studying at the Volya Teachers’ Seminary, after the October Revolution, he was engaged in Soviet and economic activities, edited the district newspaper, worked in the district committee of the RCP (B), and in the same created agricultural commune (1920). In 1923-1925 he studied at the University of Saratov. In 1924-1931 edited the “Peasant Journal” (Moscow), regularly speaking with topical journalism.
Already from the 1920s, the “proletarian writer”, who “launched a sharp criticism of proprietary rural relations with proletarian positions,” Panferov is in the leadership of the RAPP, from 1931 to the end of his life (with little interruptions), the editor-in-chief of Rapp’s October magazine.
His first story Before the shooting (1918) was published in Saratov magazine “Gornilo”. He wrote plays for peasant theaters about the socialist transformations in the countryside – The Children of the Earth (1920), Pachom (1923), The Peasants (1924), The Rebellion of the Land, Razvan (both 1926); Sketches Coastal from the village fields (both 1926), On the river Tsne, In the early morning (both 1927).
The most significant work of Panferov is the novel by Brusky (book 1-4, 1928-1937), which grew into an epic painting from a short essay Ognevtsi, republished many times and received the powerful support of all supporters of the early collectivization of the village, overcoming the instinct of ownership, “the power of the earth,” ” idiocy of rural life “and other components of the age-old existence of the traditional Russian peasantry. “A military report from a village shuddering from internal struggle,” called the novel Panferov AV Lunacharsky; “Encyclopedia” of village life – critics echoed. These assessments noted, on the one hand, the author’s knowledge of the life of the village, the sense of the variability of his emotionally-ideological “aura” (scenes of desperate rampant peasantry and slaughtering on the eve
of collectivization; Nikita Gurianov, who dreamed of a land where there is no collectivization, and thus anticipated the essential motive of the T. Tvardovsky’s poem Country of Muravia), and on the other – the tendentious predetermination of the “polar” arrangement of images (attractive with disinterestedness, altruism and conviction the leaders of the collective farm movement, the “new” Bolshevik people Stepan Ognev, the Kustodiyev hero, the rapidly reformed strong owner Kirill Zhdarkin, and the former “clerk” poor Schlenk – and their antagonists, satirically depicted miser-individualists, representatives of the world of profit, kulaks Yegor Chukhlyaev, Ilya Plakushchev, Markel Bykov).
Ambiguous for the literary community were the “raw”, literary, colorful-“uninhabited” (AS Serafimovich) and the pretentious-gnarled, mannered-strained (M. Gorky) language of the novel (with new types of “base” and interior landscapes like: “The earth languished like a woman who emerged from a hot chicken hut”), the naturalistic rudeness of many scenes, saturation of characters and kaleidoscopy of the narrative, the emphasis on the “pre-school”, “animal” beginning in the natural man of the people.
Prophesied was the fear of Gorky, an active participant in the bitter controversy of the early 1930s around the Brusks, who grew up in one of the most significant Soviet-language discussions on the “language debate”, about “inability” or “unwillingness” to learn their original author. The role of the literary leader, a member of the board of the Writers’ Union of the USSR since 1934, a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR since 1946 and the leader of one of the largest Soviet literary and journalistic journals, though not distorted, according to a number of memories, the kind and in his own respectable nature Panferov, writers and not stained with denunciation even in the most provocative years, but also did not contribute to the improvement of his artistic skill.
Surface descriptiveness, slogan rhetoric, stilted images, plot melodramatism and plot improbability, partially manifested already in the bars, as well as stylistic colorlessness, “cliché” and untidiness have become characteristic features of most of Panferov’s subsequent works, invariably conjuncturn-topical and responding to each zigzag “of the general line “.
The author of the trilogy about the Great Patriotic War and post-war construction The struggle for peace, 1945-1947; In the land of the defeated, 1948; State Prizes of the USSR, 1948, 1949; Great Art, 1954); trilogy Volga-Mother River, addressed to the problems of agriculture (Udar, 1953, Meditation, 1958, In the name of the young, 1960).
In the writer’s creative legacy, essays from the life of the rear and the front, the military tales of his eyes (1941) and the Hand became heavy (1942), plays The 30th Year (1935), Life (1939), dedicated to Panferov’s favorite heroes-Volga peasants, we are beautiful (1952), which caused negative assessments of criticism for aesthetic tastelessness, an autobiographical novel Native Past (1956), Tales of the Volga Region (1957), journalistic and literary criticisms.
Panferov died in Moscow on September 10, 1960.