Peter the Great is an outstanding statesman, a Moscow tsar from the Romanov dynasty, an all-Russian emperor from 1721, a great reformer.
Peter the Great was born on May 30, 1672 in Moscow. In the biography of Peter 1 it is important to note that he was the youngest son of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich from his second marriage to Queen Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina. From one year he was brought up by nannies. And after his father’s death, at the age of four, his stepbrother and the new Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich became the guardian of Peter.
Since the age of 5, little Peter began to teach the alphabet. Lessons were given to him by the deacon NM Zotov. However, the future king’s education was weak and did not differ in literacy.
Rise to power
In 1682, after the death of Fyodor Alekseevich, the 10-year-old Peter and his brother Ivan were proclaimed kings. But in fact the management took over their older sister – Tsarevna Sofya Alekseevna.
At this time, Peter and his mother were forced to move away from the yard and move to the village of Preobrazhenskoe. Here, Peter 1 has an interest in military activities, he creates “amusing” regiments, which later became the basis of the Russian army. He is fond of gunsmithing, shipbuilding. Spends a lot of time in the German settlement, becomes a fan of European life, makes friends.
In 1689 Sophia was removed from the throne, and power was transferred to Peter I, and the country’s administration was entrusted to his mother and uncle LK Naryshkin.
The reign of the king
Peter continued the war with the Crimea, took the fortress of Azov. Further actions of Peter I were aimed at creating a powerful fleet. The foreign policy of Peter I of that time was focused on finding allies in the war against the Ottoman Empire. With this purpose, Peter went to Europe.
At this time, the activities of Peter I consisted only in the creation of political alliances. He studies shipbuilding, the device, the culture of other countries. Returned to Russia after the news of the Streltsy mutiny. As a result, the trip wanted to change Russia, for which several innovations were made. For example, introduced the chronology of the Julian calendar.
For the development of trade, access to the Baltic Sea was required. So the next stage of the reign of Peter I was the war with Sweden. Having concluded peace with Turkey, he captured
the fortress of Noteburg, Nienschanz. In May 1703 the construction of St. Petersburg was started. Next year, Narva, Dorpat are taken. In June 1709, in the Battle of Poltava, Sweden was defeated. Soon after the death of Charles XII, peace was concluded between Russia and Sweden. Russia was joined by new lands, an outlet was obtained to the Baltic Sea.
Reforming of Russia
In October 1721 in the biography of Peter the Great, the title of emperor was adopted.
Also during his reign, Kamchatka was annexed, the Caspian coast was conquered.
The military reform of Peter I spent several times. In general, it concerned the collection of money for the maintenance of the army and the fleet. It was held, briefly, forcibly.
Further reforms of Peter I accelerated the technical and economic development of Russia. He carried out church reform, financial reform in industry, culture, and commerce. In education, he also carried out a series of reforms aimed at mass education: many schools for children and the first gymnasium in Russia were opened.
Death and heritage
Before his death, Peter I was very ill, but continued to rule the state. Peter the Great died on January 28, 1725 from inflammation of the bladder. The throne passed to his wife – Empress Catherine I.
The strong personality of Peter I, who sought to change not only the state, but also people, played an important role in the history of Russia.
In the name of the Great Emperor, after his death, cities were named.
Monuments to Peter the Great are erected not only in Russia, but also in many European countries. One of the most famous is the Bronze Horseman in St. Petersburg.