Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov is a Russian writer, playwright, director, one of the best authors of the first half of the 20th century. The creator of the brilliant novel “The Master and Margarita.”
Childhood and Education
Mikhail Bulgakov was born on May 3, 1891 in Kiev to the family of the teacher of the Theological Academy Afanasy Ivanovich Bulgakov. Since 1901 the future writer has received primary education in the First Kiev Gymnasium. In 1909 he entered the Kiev University in the Medical Faculty. In the second year, in 1913, Mikhail Afanasyevich married Tatiana Lappa.
After graduating from the university in 1916, Bulgakov got a job in one of the Kiev hospitals. In the summer of 1916, he was sent to the village of Nikolskoe, Smolensk province. In a brief biography of Bulgakov, one can not help but mention that during this period the writer was addicted to morphine, but thanks to the efforts of his wife he was able to overcome dependence.
During the civil war in 1919 Bulgakov was mobilized as a military doctor in the army of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, and then in the army of Southern Russia. In 1920, Mikhail Afanasyevich fell ill with typhus, so he could not leave the country with the Volunteer Army.
Moscow. The beginning of the creative path
In 1921, Bulgakov moved to Moscow. He is actively engaged in literary activity, begins to cooperate with many periodicals in Moscow – “Gudok”, “Rabochy”, etc., takes part in meetings of literary circles. In 1923, Mikhail Afanasyevich entered the All-Russian Writers’ Union, which also included A. Volynsky, F. Sologub, Nikolai Gumilev, Kornei Chukovsky, Alexander Blok.
In 1924, Bulgakov divorced his first wife, and a year later, in 1925, married Lyubov Belozerskaya.
In 1924 – 1928, Bulgakov creates the most famous of his works – Dyavoliada, Dog Heart, Blizzard, Fatal Eggs, The White Guard, Zoykina Apartment, Play The Days of the Turbins, The Crimson Island ” , “Run” . In 1926 in the Moscow Art Theater was the premiere of the play “Days of the Turbins” – the work was put on Stalin’s personal instructions.
In 1929, Bulgakov visited Leningrad, where he met with E. Zamyatin and Anna Akhmatova. Because of the sharp criticism of... the revolution in his works, Mikhail Afanasievich was summoned several times for interrogation in the OGPU. Bulgakov ceased to print, his plays are forbidden to be staged in theaters.
In 1930, Mikhail Afanasyevich personally wrote a letter to I. Stalin with a request to grant him the right to leave the USSR or to allow him to earn a living. After that, the writer was able to find a job as an assistant director in the Moscow Art Theater. In 1934, Bulgakov was admitted to the Soviet Union of Writers, whose chairmen at different times were Maxim Gorky, Alexei Tolstoy, and A. Fadeyev.
In 1931, Bulgakov parted with L. Belozerskaya, and, in 1932, married Elena Shilovskaya, whom she had known for several years.
Mikhail Bulgakov, whose biography was saturated with events of a different nature, was seriously ill in recent years. The writer was diagnosed with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. On March 10, 1940, Mikhail Afanasyevich passed away. Burkanov was buried at Novodevichye Cemetery in Moscow.
The Master and Margarita
“Master and Margarita” is the most important work of Mikhail Bulgakov, which he devoted to his last wife, Elena Sergeevna Bulgakova, and worked on it more than ten years until his death. The novel is the most discussed and important work in the biography and the work of the writer. During the life of the writer, “Master and Margarita” was not published because of the prohibition of censorship. The novel was first published in 1967.
Interesting facts from life
- In the family of Bulgakov there were seven children – three sons and four daughters. Mikhail Afanasyevich was the eldest child. The first work of Bulgakov was the story of “The Adventures of Svetlana,” which Mikhail Afanasyevich wrote back at the age of seven. Since the early years Bulgakov has had an exceptional memory and read a lot. One of the largest books that the future writer read at the age of eight was the novel by V. Hugo “Notre Dame de Paris”. The choice Bulgakov profession of a doctor was influenced by the fact that most of his relatives were engaged in medicine. The prototype of Professor Preobrazhensky from the story “The Dog’s Heart” was Uncle Bulgakov – gynecologist NM Pokrovsky.