(1893 – 1930)
Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich (1893-1930) – a poet.
Vladimir Mayakovsky was born in 1893 in the Caucasus in the family of a forester. A free childhood in Baghdadi village among the forested mountains, under the generous southern sun, prompted the boy’s poetic feeling early. He loved poetry, drew well, loved long trips.
The events of the first Russian revolution (1905) left a notable mark in the biography of the future poet. A pupil of the second class of the gymnasium Volodya Mayakovsky participated in revolutionary youth speeches, got acquainted with the social-democratic literature.
After the death of his father, the family moved to Moscow. The future poet was engaged in revolutionary activity, worked as a propagandist among the workers, was arrested three times. In 1910 Mayakovsky was released from Butyrka prison, where he spent 11 months.
The release of Mayakovsky from prison was in the fullest sense an outlet to art. In 1911 he entered the Moscow School of Painting. The social and artistic situation in Russia in the 1910s put Mayakovsky before the choice – old life and old art, or a new life and new art. Mayakovsky chose futurism as the creativity of the future in all spheres of life. “I want to do socialist art,” the poet defined the purpose of his life as early as 1910.
In the early poems of Mayakovsky there appear contours of the lyrical hero, who painfully and strenuously strives to know himself (“Night”, “Morning”, “Can You?”, “From Fatigue”, “Veil of Veil”). In poems “Nate!”, “You!”, “I do not understand anything,” “That’s how I became a dog” is a real historical content: here the lyrical hero consciously strives to be “alien” in a world alien to him. To this end, Mayakovsky uses the characteristic quality of the grotesque – a combination of plausibility and fiction.
In 1913, the poet is working on the first major work, a kind of dramatic version of the early lyrics – the tragedy “Vladimir Mayakovsky.” B. Pasternak wrote: “The tragedy was called” Vladimir Mayakovsky. “The title concealed a brilliantly simple discovery that the poet is not an author, but is a subject of lyricism, which refers to the world from the first person. The title was not the name of the writer, but the surname
of the content.”
The top of the prerevolutionary creativity of the great poet is the poem “Cloud in Pants” (the original title is “The Thirteenth Apostle”). In this poem, Mayakovsky realizes himself the singer of mankind, oppressed by the existing system, which rises to the struggle.
In the pre-revolutionary years, the mastery of Mayakovsky-satirist is growing stronger. He creates satirical hymns (“Hymn to the judge”, “Hymn to health”, “Hymn to dinner”, “Hymn to bribe”, “Hymn to criticism”).
On the eve of the revolution, the poet writes the poems “War and Peace”, “Man”, imbued with the motives of peace and humanism. A presentiment of the coming revolutionary upheavals inspired confidence in the imminent realization of these predictions. Mayakovsky foresaw the moral image of the future in War and Peace, he believed that the future man would be free. And in the poem “Man” the author continues this theme. A person is free, the “real” comes to Earth, but she, “cursed”, fetters him, contrasting the “ocean of love” with the “gold-turn of money”.
Mayakovsky enthusiastically welcomed the October Revolution: “My Revolution”, and this determined the nature of his work in the post-October period. He sought to give “… a heroic, epic and satirical depiction of our era.” He writes poetry, glorifying the construction of communism, the Soviet man, the socialist homeland.
In the 1920s, the poet traveled a lot around his native country, often abroad. Overseas poems Mayakovsky – an important part of his creative heritage.
In 1918, the poet wrote “The Mystery-Buff”, in 1921 – “150,000,000”, in 1923-1924. – “IV International.” In VI Lenin, Mayakovsky saw the embodiment of the ideal model of the future man and dedicated to him the poem “Vladimir Ilyich Lenin” (1924).
The poet was an irreconcilable enemy of the philistinism, and this is shown in his plays “Bedbug” (1928) and “Bath” (1929), whose characters entered the gallery of the best satirical images of the Soviet theater.
In 1925, the poet went to America. It was his sixth trip abroad. In many cities the poet spoke with reading his poems, answered the questions of listeners. His poems written in 1925-1926 are widely known: “To Comrade Nette – The Steamer and the Man,” “Black and White,” “Poems on the Soviet Passport,” “Khrenov’s Story on Kuznetskstroi and the People of Kuznetsk,” “Broadway” and others.
In 1927, by the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution, the poet created the poem “Good”, which became one of the greatest gains of socialist realism.
Mayakovsky wrote poetry to children. A special place among them is the poem “What is good and what is bad” (1925).
The poet did not have time to complete the planned poem about the five-year plan “At the top of his voice” (1930). Only the introduction was written.
“I am a poet, and this is interesting, I write about this,” – so begins the poet his autobiography, and the poet lived his short but surprisingly rich, bright life. “Life is Beautiful and amazing!” – such is the motive of the post-October creativity of Mayakovsky. But, noting in life the sprouts of a new, beautiful, the poet never tires of recalling that “so many different scoundrels are walking about our land and around.” Not every poem stands the test of time. But in the work of Mayakovsky, the idea of immortality created in works dominates,
No matter how tragic the personal fate of Mayakovsky, in the history of world literature it is difficult to give an example of such an amazing correspondence between the epoch, its character and the personality of the poet, the essence of his talent, as if created by history for the time when he lived and worked.