Biography Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich

(1711 – 1765)

Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilievich (1711 – 1765), a brilliant Russian scientist in many branches of knowledge, a poet, educator, one of the most outstanding luminaries of world science.
Father Lomonosov, Vasily Dorofeev (or Fedorov), a black-eared peasant, had land and vessels for fishing along the Murmansk coast; Lomonosov grew up in a simple and harsh environment. As a teenager, he traveled with his father on crafts and was often exposed to dangers. Literacy Lomonosov learned relatively early. His first unspiritual books, the “gates of learning,” were the Slovenian grammar of Smotrytsky and the arithmetic of Magnitsky. Motivated by a thirst for knowledge, Lomonosov left in 1731 with a train to Moscow, where he was admitted to the Spassky Schools. Lomonosov suffered a lot of grief and misery here: his father’s reproaches, “unspeakable poverty,” the mockery of schoolchildren. The abilities, exemplary diligence and rapid successes of Lomonosov were noticed. In 1736, among the 12 best students of the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, he was summoned to St. Petersburg for study at the Academy of Sciences. In September of the same year Lomonosov was sent to Germany (Marburg) to Christian Wolf, to study chemistry and mining, and was charged with “learning and natural history, physics, geometry and trigonometry, mechanics, hydraulics and hydraulic engineering.” In Marburg, Lomonosov stayed until 1739. Here he received an extensive and thorough education. In 1738 the student Lomonosov sent to the Academy a report in German about the lectures and books purchased, the reasoning in Latin in physics and the poetic translation of the ode to Fenelon, glorifying the happiness of a secluded rural life. From Marburg students were sent to Freiberg to the “mountain counselor” Genkel, and their content was reduced by half and Henkel was instructed to keep the students stricter, to declare in the city so that no one would believe them in debt. And since the Academy sent money wrongfully, the students were in great need, hence the request for Genkel, displeasure with him. Lomonosov, possessing an ardent temperament, quarreled with a mentor and left Freiberg without the permission of the Academy in 1740. Traveling in Germany, Lomonosov married Elizabeth-Christine Zilch. According to some sources, on his way from Marburg to Holland, he was forcibly recruited into Prussian soldiers, but fled from the fortress of Wesel. After wandering Lomonosov arrived in accordance with the order of the Academy, in 1741. In 1742 Lomonosov was made an adjunct in physics, in 1745, after the departure of prof. Gmelin abroad, professor of chemistry, remained in this post until the end of his life. His activity was described by Lomonosov himself in 1753, in a letter to Shuvalov: “If someone, in his profession and position, lectures, makes experiments new, speaks public speeches and desserts, and outside it composes different poems and projects for solemn expressions of joy, makes up rules for eloquence in their language and the history of their country, and must still be put on hold, from that I have nothing more to demand and I am ready to with to be patient when it was just born. “In 1757 Lomonosov became a member of the Academic Chancellery and joined the management of academic affairs. In 1759, Lomonosov was entrusted with the management of an academic gymnasium, a university, and a geographic But both the achievement of the situation and the work of Lomonosov were accompanied by a continuous struggle with the academic chancellery, which was in charge not only of economic but also of scientists and educational affairs, with the ruling German party, Masonic intrigues of G. N. Teplov and other ” free masons “in the Academy,” with the enemies of the Russian sciences who do not allow the planting of Peter the Great to grow freely. “The intense activity, the long struggle with the hostile party, prematurely upset Lomonosov’s health.” Genius abilities, deep love of science, constant hard work, ardent patriotism, the hardness of the will to achieve the goal – these are the distinguishing features of Lomonosov. As a scientist Lomonosov was distinguished by an extraordinary breadth of interests, enriched his discoveries with physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography, technology, geology, history, philology, sought to use science for the development of productive forces, raising the welfare of the country. Of his observations and discoveries Lomonosov expounded in a brilliant publicly available form. which do not allow the planting of Peter the Great to grow freely. “The intense activity, the long struggle with the hostile party, prematurely upset Lomonosov’s health.” Genius abilities, a deep love of science, constant industriousness, fiery patriotism, unshakable firmness of will in achieving the goal are the distinguishing features of Lomonosov. scientist Lomonosov was distinguished by an extraordinary breadth of interests, enriched his discoveries with physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography, technology, geology, history, philology, Lomonosov expounded his observations and discoveries in a brilliant publicly available form. which do not allow the planting of Peter the Great to grow freely. “The intense activity, the long struggle with the hostile party, prematurely upset Lomonosov’s health.” Genius abilities, a deep love of science, constant industriousness, fiery patriotism, unshakable firmness of will in achieving the goal are the distinguishing features of Lomonosov. scientist Lomonosov was distinguished by an extraordinary breadth of interests, enriched his discoveries with physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography, technology, geology, history, philology, Lomonosov expounded his observations and discoveries in a brilliant publicly available form. long struggle with the hostile party prematurely upset Lomonosov’s health. Genius abilities, deep love of science, constant diligence, ardent patriotism, unshakable firmness of will when achieving the goal are the distinguishing features of Lomonosov. As a scientist Lomonosov was distinguished by an extraordinary breadth of interests; enriched his discoveries with physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography, technology, geology, history, philology; sought to use science to develop the productive forces, raising the welfare of the country. Lomonosov expounded his observations and discoveries in a brilliant public form. long struggle with the hostile party prematurely upset Lomonosov’s health. Genius abilities, deep love of science, constant diligence, ardent patriotism, unshakable firmness of will when achieving the goal are the distinguishing features of Lomonosov. As a scientist Lomonosov was distinguished by an extraordinary breadth of interests; enriched his discoveries with physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography, technology, geology, history, philology; sought to use science to develop the productive forces, raising the welfare of the country. Lomonosov expounded his observations and discoveries in a brilliant public form. As a scientist Lomonosov was distinguished by an extraordinary breadth of interests; enriched his discoveries with physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography, technology, geology, history, philology; sought to use science to develop the productive forces, raising the welfare of the country. Lomonosov expounded his observations and discoveries in a brilliant public form. As a scientist Lomonosov was distinguished by an extraordinary breadth of interests; enriched his discoveries with physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography, technology, geology, history, philology; sought to use science to develop the productive forces, raising the welfare of the country. Lomonosov expounded his observations and discoveries in a brilliant public form.
Lomonosov’s scientific research in chemistry and physics was based on ideas about the atomic-molecular structure of matter. Lomonosov decided to write a great “corpuscular philosophy” – a treatise combining all the physics and chemistry into one harmonious whole on the basis of atomic-molecular representations. On the way to achieving this goal, Lomonosov made a number of world discoveries, and first of all he discovered the Law of Conservation of Energy, which had as great importance for the development of science as the theory of relativity. “… All the changes that happen in nature are the state that so many things from one body are taken away, so much will be added to another… This universal natural law extends to the very rules of the movement: for a body that moves its power differently, so much It also loses in itself, as it tells another, “Lomonosov believed that the laws of conservation of matter and motion were the main ones that did not require verification by the axioms of natural science.” Lomonosov refuted the doctrine of “fiery matter” existing in Western science of that time. The Boyle experiment, which, after calcining a sealed vessel, containing metal, discovered an increase in the weight of the opened vessel and attributed it to the penetration of “fire matter” (phlogiston) through the glass. “Repeating Boyle’s experience, but not opening the vessel after heating, Lomonosov saw that” … vnogo Roberta Boylya opinion is false, because without skipping outside air weight of the burnt metal remains the same extent. “And unlike the chemists of his time, Lomonosov rule” fire matter “of the number of chemical agents. Lomonosov considered the laws of conservation of matter and motion to be the basic axioms of natural science that do not require verification. Lomonosov refuted the doctrine of “fiery matter” existing in Western science of that time. He tested Boyle’s experience, which, calcining a sealed vessel containing metal, found an increase in the weight of the opened vessel and attributed it to the penetration through the glass of “fire matter” (phlogiston). Repeating Boyle’s experience, but not opening the vessel after heating, Lomonosov became convinced that “… the glorious Robert Boyle’s opinion is false, for without missing the outer air, the weight of the burnt metal remains in one measure.” And unlike chemists of his time, Lomonosov excluded “fiery matter” from among chemical agents. Lomonosov considered the laws of conservation of matter and motion to be the basic axioms of natural science that do not require verification. Lomonosov refuted the doctrine of “fiery matter” existing in Western science of that time. He tested Boyle’s experience, which, calcining a sealed vessel containing metal, found an increase in the weight of the opened vessel and attributed it to the penetration through the glass of “fire matter” (phlogiston). Repeating Boyle’s experience, but not opening the vessel after heating, Lomonosov became convinced...

that “… the glorious Robert Boyle’s opinion is false, for without missing the outer air, the weight of the burnt metal remains in one measure.” And unlike chemists of his time, Lomonosov excluded “fiery matter” from among chemical agents. Lomonosov refuted the doctrine of “fiery matter” existing in Western science of that time. He tested Boyle’s experience, which, calcining a sealed vessel containing metal, found an increase in the weight of the opened vessel and attributed it to the penetration through the glass of “fire matter” (phlogiston). Repeating Boyle’s experience, but not opening the vessel after heating, Lomonosov became convinced that “… the glorious Robert Boyle’s opinion is false, for without missing the outer air, the weight of the burnt metal remains in one measure.” And unlike chemists of his time, Lomonosov excluded “fiery matter” from among chemical agents. Lomonosov refuted the doctrine of “fiery matter” existing in Western science of that time. He tested Boyle’s experience, which, calcining a sealed vessel containing metal, found an increase in the weight of the opened vessel and attributed it to the penetration through the glass of “fire matter” (phlogiston). Repeating Boyle’s experience, but not opening the vessel after heating, Lomonosov became convinced that “… the glorious Robert Boyle’s opinion is false, for without missing the outer air, the weight of the burnt metal remains in one measure.” And unlike chemists of his time, Lomonosov excluded “fiery matter” from among chemical agents. discovered an increase in the weight of the opened vessel and attributed it to the penetration through the glass of “fire matter” (phlogiston). Repeating Boyle’s experience, but not opening the vessel after heating, Lomonosov became convinced that “… the glorious Robert Boyle’s opinion is false, for without missing the outer air, the weight of the burnt metal remains in one measure.” And unlike chemists of his time, Lomonosov excluded “fiery matter” from among chemical agents. discovered an increase in the weight of the opened vessel and attributed it to the penetration through the glass of “fire matter” (phlogiston). Repeating Boyle’s experience, but not opening the vessel after heating, Lomonosov became convinced that “… the glorious Robert Boyle’s opinion is false, for without missing the outer air, the weight of the burnt metal remains in one measure.” And unlike chemists of his time, Lomonosov excluded “fiery matter” from among chemical agents.
The theoretical chemistry of Lomonosov relied entirely on the achievements of physics. “Physical chemistry,” he wrote, “is a science that explains, on the basis of the positions and experiments of physics, what happens in mixed bodies during chemical operations… My chemistry is physical.” In 1752-53 Lomonosov read the course “Introduction to True Physical Chemistry” to students, accompanied by demonstration experiments and practical exercises. He made an extensive program of studies of the properties of solutions. His data on the solubility of salts in water at various temperatures, on cooling solutions with a record of the temperature drop over time, are preserved. Lomonosov developed devices for physical research of chemical objects (for measuring viscosity, for determining the refractive index, a device for determining the hardness of samples).
Lomonosov paid considerable attention to the studies of atmospheric electricity conducted by him together with G. V. Richman. Lomonosov and Rikhman gave their experiments a quantitative character, having developed for this purpose special equipment – a “thunder machine.” One of the important inventions of Lomonosov in the field of optics was the “night-vision tube” (1756-58), which made it possible to distinguish objects distinctly in twilight. In addition, long before V. Herschel, Lomonosov constructed a reflective (mirror) telescope for an additional flat mirror. Lomonosov was also interested in astronomy and geophysics. May 26, 1761 during the passage of Venus on the disk of the Sun Lomonosov discovered the existence of her atmosphere, the first time correctly interpreting the blurring of the solar edge with a double passage of Venus across the edge of the Sun’s disk.
Lomonosov paid considerable attention to the development of geology and mineralogy in Russia and personally produced a large number of rock analyzes. He proved the organic origin of soil, peat, coal, oil, amber. In his “The Word of the Birth of Metals from the Shaking of the Earth” (1757) and in the work “On the Layers of the Earth” (published in the 1750s, published in 1763), he consistently pursued the idea of ​​the natural evolution of nature and actually applied the method subsequently obtained in geology the name of actualism. “… In vain, many people think that everything, as we see, was first created by the Creator,” Lomonosov wrote. “… Such arguments are very harmful to the increment of all sciences…” In the same paper, Lomonosov cited evidence of the existence of the continent at the South Pole of the Earth.
Attaching great importance to the development of Russian metallurgical production, which occupied in the XVIII century. one of the leading places in the world, Lomonosov in 1763 published the manual “The First Foundations of Metallurgy or Ore Mining”, in which he examined in detail both the properties of various metals and the methods of their practical use. At the same time, Lomonosov developed here for the first time the physical conditions for the “free” movement of air in mines and applied the results of this analysis to the processes taking place in furnaces operating without forced blowing. The book was released by a huge circulation for that time (1225 copies).
In 1758, Lomonosov was commissioned to “look” for the Geographical Department, the Historical Assembly, the University and the Academic Gymnasium of the Academy of Sciences. The main task of the Geographical Department was to compile the Atlas of Russia. Lomonosov developed an extensive plan for obtaining both physical-geographical and economic-geographical data for the compilation of Atlas by organizing geographic expeditions, as well as processing responses to special questionnaires sent to various points of the country. Closely associated with these works of Lomonosov is his remarkable treatise “On the Preservation and Reproduction of the Russian People” (1761), which has a socio-political character. In it Lomonosov proposed a number of legislative and public events,
In “Discourses on the Great Accuracy of the Sea Route” (1759), Lomonosov proposed a number of new instruments and methods for determining the longitude and latitude of the site. In this work he first proposed the organization of an international naval academy for the joint solution of the most important scientific and technical problems of navigation. Lomonosov investigated sea ice and gave the first classification. He repeatedly stressed the political and economic importance for Russia of developing the Northern Sea Route. In 1762-63 he wrote a “Brief description of various trips to the northern seas and an indication of the possible passage of the Siberian Ocean to Eastern India”, and in 1764 – “adding” to this work “On North Navigation to the East across the Siberian Ocean”, accompanied by his “exemplary” instruction “
In the field of Russian literature, Lomonosov’s significant merit is the improvement of Russian literary, prosaic and poetic language (The Letter on the Rules of Russian Poetry, 1739, On the Benefits of Church Books in the Russian Language, 1755-57). Lomonosov wrote the grammar of the Russian language (1755) and the first rhetoric in Russian (short, 1748, and lengthy, 1748), gave examples of eloquence and poetry in different genera and forms (praiseworthy words: the laudable word Elizabeth, 1749, Peter the Great, 1755, etc., ode, spiritual, praiseworthy inscriptions, poems: impromptu, messages to Empress Elizabeth, Catherine and nobles, epic poem “Peter the Great”, tragedies: “Tamir and Selim”, “Demophon”).
Lomonosov was the largest historian of his time. His main works are “Ancient Russian History” (Parts 1-2, 1766), remarks on the thesis of G. F. Miller “The Origin of the Name and the People of Russia” (1749-50) and “The Brief Russian Chronicler” (1760). Lomonosov wrote Notes on the History of Voltaire (1757-60, 1829) and GF Miller’s The Siberian History (1751); “A brief description of various trips to the northern seas…” (1763). Lomonosov’s historical views were formed in a sharp struggle against the Norman theory, which denied the independent development of the Russian people. Lomonosov developed a historical concept in which he emphasized the decisive role of Orthodoxy, the Autocracy and the spiritual and moral values ​​of the Russian people in the formation of the Russian state; did not isolate the domestic history from the European one, revealed the features of similarities and differences in the historical life of different peoples. Lomonosov distinguished in Russian history the periods of formation, growth, decay and a new, higher rise and divided in this connection the history of Russia for six periods. The first period is the “ancient age before Rurik”. He is devoted to the first part of the “Ancient Russian History”, in which it is proved that the creators of the Kiev state were not Scandinavian conquerors, but local, mostly Slavic and partly Chudskoe (Finno-Finnish) tribes. 2 nd – from the vocation of Rurik to the death of Yaroslav I, he is devoted to the second part of the “Ancient Russian History”. 3rd – before the invasion of Batu. The fourth period (before the reign of Ivan III) Lomonosov singled out, in accordance with the statement, the violation and restoration of political unity (” The 6th period (from Peter the Great to Elizabeth Petrovna) is the transformation of Russia into a powerful European power on the basis of the enlightenment of the Russian people that has begun. The theory advanced by Lomonosov of the Slavic-Chudic origin of Ancient Rus was adopted by later historiography. The 6th period (from Peter the Great to Elizabeth Petrovna) is the transformation of Russia into a powerful European power on the basis of the enlightenment of the Russian people that has begun. The theory advanced by Lomonosov of the Slavic-Chudic origin of Ancient Rus was adopted by later historiography.


Biography Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich