Biography Lermontov Mikhail Yurievich

Biography Lermontov Mikhail Yurievich



(1814 – 1841)

Russian poet. He studied at Moscow University (1830-32). He graduated from the St. Petersburg School of Guards Supporters and Cavalry Junkers (1834). In 1837, for the poem “The Death of a Poet” (about the death of Alexander Pushkin), he was exiled to the Caucasus. Killed in a duel in Pyatigorsk. Disappointment in reality, typical for the post-December moods, skepticism, the desire for the ideal of a free and rebellious personality fueled his early romantic poems, and in mature lyrics, and a dream of peace (“The Duma”, “And Bored and Sad,” “Prayer,” ” Prophet “,” I’m leaving alone for the road, “the poem” Mtsyri “, 1839, the drama” Masquerade, “1835). Many of Lermontov’s works are permeated with civic pathos, patriotic feelings [unfinished socio-historical novel. “Vadim” (1832-34), the poem “Borodino”, “Poet”, “Motherland”]. The poem “Demon” (completed in 1839) symbolically embodied the idea of ​​rebellion against the “world order”, the tragedy of loneliness. Lermontov introduced a poem into Russian poetry, marked by energy of thought and melody. The novel “The Hero of Our Time” (1840), saturated with profound social reflection and psychological content, is the top of Lermontov’s realism.
LERMONTOV Mikhail Yurievich [3 (15) October 1814, Moscow 15 (27) July 1841, the foot of Mount Mashuk, near Pyatigorsk; buried in the village of Tarkhany, Penza region], Russian poet.
Unknown choice
The marriage of Lermontov’s parents to the wealthy heiress MM Arsenieva (1795-1817) and the army captain Yu. P. Lermontov (1773-1831) was unsuccessful. The early death of the mother and the quarrel between her father and grandmother EA Arsenieva severely affected the formation of the poet’s personality. Lermontov was brought up by his grandmother in the estate of Tarkhany of the Penza province; received excellent home education (foreign languages, drawing, music). The romantic cult of the father and the corresponding interpretation of the family conflict were later reflected in the dramas Menschen und Leidenschaften (“People and Passions”, 1830), “Strange Man” (1831). Significant for the formation of Lermontov and the legend of the legendary founder of his kind of Scottish poet Thomas Lermont. Strong



impressions of childhood include trips to the Caucasus (1820, 1825).
Since 1827 Lermontov lives in Moscow. He studies at the Moscow University noble boarding school (September 1828, March 1830), later at the Moscow University (September 1830, June 1832) at the moral, political and then verbal branch.
Lermontov’s early poetic experiments testify to a gambling and unsystematic reading of pre-romantic and romantic literature: along with JG Byron and AS Pushkin, F. Schiller, V. Hugo, KN Batiushkov, and the philosophical lyrics of the philosophers are important to him; in verse a lot of borrowed lines (fragments) from the works of various authors from MV Lomonosov to contemporary poets. Not thinking of himself as a professional writer and not trying to print, Lermontov leads a secret lyrical diary, where strangers, sometimes contrasting formulas, serve as an expression of the hidden truth about a great and incomprehensible soul. Experienced in 1830-32 hobbies EA Sushkova, NF Ivanova, VA Lopukhina become the material for the corresponding lyrical and confessional cycles, where for specific circumstances lies an eternal, tragic conflict. At the same time, romantic poems are being developed from frankly imitative “Circassians” (1828) to fully professional “Izmail Bey” and “Litvinka” (both 1832), which testify to the assimilation by Lermontov of the genre (Byron-Pushkin) canon (exclusivity of the main character, “vertexity “composition,” understatement “of the plot, exotic or historical color). By the early 1830’s. the “main” heroes of Lermontov’s poetic system, correlated with two different life and creative strategies, were found, with two interpretations of one’s own personality: the fallen spirit, who deliberately cursed the world and chose evil (the first edition of the poem “Demon”, 1829), and an innocent, , dreaming of freedom and natural harmony (the poem “Confession”, 1831, It was the prototype of the poem “Mtsyri”). The contrast of these interpretations does not exclude an inner kinship that provides for the tense antithesiveness of the characters of all the main Lermontov heroes and the complexity of the author’s assessment.
Time of Troubles
Leaving for some reason the university, Lermontov moved to St. Petersburg in 1832 and entered the School of Guards Sub-Lieutenants and Cavalry Junkers; was issued by the cornet of the Life Guards Regiment of the Hussar Regiment in 1834. The place of high poetry is occupied by an unprintable poem (“Junker poems”), the place of the tragic chosen one is a cynical brethren, a diminished twin of the “demon”. At the same time, work on the novel “Vadim” (not finished), where the ultra-romantic motifs and stylistic moves (kinship of the “angel” and “demon”, “poetry of ugliness”, linguistic expression) accompany a thorough depiction of the historical background (Pugachev uprising). “Demonic” line continues in the unfinished novel from modern life “The Princess Ligovskaya” (1836) and the drama “Masquerade.”
Poet generation
By the beginning of 1837, Lermontov had no literary status: numerous poems (among them the masterpieces “Angel”, 1831, “Parus”, 1831, “Mermaid”, 1832, “The Dying Gladiator”, 1836; the poem “Boyarin Orsha”, 1835; The poem “Hadzhi Abrek” (1834) did not cause a resonance, there are no connections in the literary world (meaning “non-meeting” is important), the “Maskarad” is not overlooked by the censorship, published (according to unconfirmed reports without the author’s knowledge) with Pushkin). Glory to Lermontov comes overnight with a poem “The Death of a Poet” (1937), a response to the last duel of Pushkin. The text is widely distributed in the lists, is highly appreciated both in the Pushkin circle, and among the public, who heard in these poems their own pain and indignation.
The link lasted until October 1837: Lermontov traveled to the Caucasus, visited Tiflis, was treated on the water (acquaintance with exiled Decembrists, including poet AI Odoevsky, and also with VG Belinsky); he studied oriental folklore (recording a fairy tale “Ashik-Kerib”). The publication in 1837 of the poem “Borodino” strengthened the glory of the poet.
From April 1838 to April 1840 Lermontov served in the Life Guards Hussar Regiment, confidently winning the “big light” and the world of literature. Links are established with the Pushkin circle by the family of Karamzins, PA Vyazemsky, VA Zhukovsky (thanks to the mediation of the latter in Sovremennik, the poem Tambov Treasury is printed in 1838) and AA Kraevsky (publication “Songs about Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich… “in the literary additions to the” Russian invalid “edited by Krayevsky, 1838, and systematic cooperation with the journal Kraevsky headed in 1839 by the journal Otechestvennye zapiski.) Lermontov is a member of the frontier-aristocratic circle of sixteen.
Lermontov’s mature lyrics are dominated by the theme of his society of the weak-willed, reflexive, incapable of acting, passion, creativity. Not dissociating himself from the sick generation (The Duma, 1838), expressing doubts about the possibility of the existence of poetry here and now (The Poet, 1838, Do not Believe Yourself, 1839, The Journalist, the Reader and the Writer, 1840), skeptical evaluating life as such (“And boring and sad…”, 1840), Lermontov seeks harmony in the epic past (“Borodino”, “Song about Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich…”, where the demonic hero-oprichnik suffers defeat from the keeper moral principles), in folk culture (“The Cossack Lullaby”, 1838), in the feelings of the child (“How often surrounded by a colorful crowd…”, 1840) or person, preserve your child’s worldview (“In Memory of AI O”, 1839, 1840). God-fighting (Gratitude, 1840), the motives for the impossibility of love and destructive beauty (The Three Palms, 1839, The Cliff, Tamara, Leaf, The Sea Princess, all 1841) side by side with the search for spiritual peace, associated then with a de-ideologized national tradition (Rodina, Spor, both 1841), then with a mystical way beyond the bounds of earthly doom (“I’m leaving alone for the road…”, 1841). The same intense oscillation between the poles of world rejection and love of being, between earthly and heavenly, curse and blessing is inherent in Lermontov’s top poems of the last edition of Demon and Mtsyri (both 1839). God-fighting (Gratitude, 1840), the motives for the impossibility of love and destructive beauty (The Three Palms, 1839, The Cliff, Tamara, Leaf, The Sea Princess, all 1841) side by side with the search for spiritual peace, associated then with a de-ideologized national tradition (Rodina, Spor, both 1841), then with a mystical way beyond the bounds of earthly doom (“I’m leaving alone for the road…”, 1841). The same intense oscillation between the poles of world rejection and love of being, between earthly and heavenly, curse and blessing is inherent in Lermontov’s top poems of the last edition of Demon and Mtsyri (both 1839). God-fighting (Gratitude, 1840), the motives for the impossibility of love and destructive beauty (The Three Palms, 1839, The Cliff, Tamara, Leaf, The Sea Princess, all 1841) side by side with the search for spiritual peace, associated then with a de-ideologized national tradition (Rodina, Spor, both 1841), then with a mystical way beyond the bounds of earthly doom (“I’m leaving alone for the road…”, 1841). The same intense oscillation between the poles of world rejection and love of being, between earthly and heavenly, curse and blessing is inherent in Lermontov’s top poems of the last edition of Demon and Mtsyri (both 1839). , “Tamara”, “Listok”, “Sea Princess”, all 1841) neighbor with the search for spiritual peace, then linked with the de-ideologized national tradition (Rodina, Spor, both 1841), then with a mystical way beyond the bounds of earthly doom (“I’m leaving alone for the road…”, 1841). The same intense oscillation between the poles of world rejection and love of being, between earthly and heavenly, curse and blessing is inherent in Lermontov’s top poems of the last edition of Demon and Mtsyri (both 1839). , “Tamara”, “Listok”, “Sea Princess”, all 1841) neighbor with the search for spiritual peace, then linked with the de-ideologized national tradition (Rodina, Spor, both 1841), then with a mystical way beyond the bounds of earthly doom (“I’m leaving alone for the road…”, 1841). The same intense oscillation between the poles of world rejection and love of being, between earthly and heavenly, curse and blessing is inherent in Lermontov’s top poems of the last edition of Demon and Mtsyri (both 1839). then with a mystical way out of the bounds of earthly doom (“I’m leaving alone for the road…”, 1841). The same intense oscillation between the poles of world rejection and love of being, between earthly and heavenly, curse and blessing is inherent in Lermontov’s top poems of the last edition of Demon and Mtsyri (both 1839). then with a mystical way out of the bounds of earthly doom (“I’m leaving alone for the road…”, 1841). The same intense oscillation between the poles of world rejection and love of being, between earthly and heavenly, curse and blessing is inherent in Lermontov’s top poems of the last edition of Demon and Mtsyri (both 1839).
In 1838-40 the novel “The Hero of Our Time” was written: originally composed by his different genre short stories were published in “Fatherland Notes” and, probably, did not assume cyclization. The novel closely studies the phenomenon of modern man; the antinomies inherent in the poetic world of Lermontov are carefully analyzed. The appearance of a separate edition of the novel (April 1840) and the only lifetime collection of the poem “M. Lermontov’s Poems” (October 1840, included “Mtsyri”, “Song about Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich…”, 26 poems) became the key literary events of the era, sparked a critical polemic, a special place in which belongs to the articles of Belinsky.
Unexpected final
The duel of Lermontov with the son of the French ambassador E. de Barant (February 1840) led to the arrest and transfer to the Tengin infantry regiment. Through Moscow (meetings with the Slavophils and N. Gogol at his birthday dinner), the poet departs for the Caucasus, where he takes part in hostilities (the battle on the Valerik River, described in the poem “I write to you accidentally, right…”) , for which it is submitted to awards (deleted from the lists by Emperor Nicholas I). In January 1841 he left for St. Petersburg, where, having delayed a two-month vacation, is until April 14, revolving in literary and secular circles. Lermontov is considering plans for resignation and further literary activity (the idea of ​​the historical novel is known, there is information about the intention to start publishing the magazine); in St. Petersburg, and after leaving it one after another they write brilliant poems (v.




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Biography Lermontov Mikhail Yurievich