(1804 – 1860)
Khomyakov Alexey Stepanovich (1804 – 1860), poet, publicist, religious philosopher.
Born May 1 (13 N. s.) In Moscow in an old noble family. He received a wonderful home education.
At the age of 17 he passed the exam for the degree of candidate of mathematical sciences at Moscow University. In the same year he began to publish (translation of the work of Tacitus). He shows great interest in philosophy (gravitates toward German idealism) and literary creativity: he writes poetry, works on the historical poem “Vadim”, translates ancient authors.
In 1822 Khomyakov was recruited for military service first to the Astrakhan Cyrusir Regiment, a year later transferred to Petersburg to the Horse Guards. Establishes an acquaintance with the poets-Decembrists, prints in the “Polar Star” poem “Immortality of the Leader” (1824). In 1825 he left the service, went abroad, engaged in painting and wrote a historical drama “Ermak”, which on his return to Moscow he reads at the Venevitinovs’ house and receives the approval of listeners:
In 1828 – 29 Khomyakov participates in the Russian-Turkish war, after which he leaves in resigns and leaves for his estate, deciding to take up farming. Does not leave literary activity, cooperating with various magazines.
Already in the early poems of Khomyakov contained elements of Slavophilism, which in the 1830s are added to the Slavophile idea. This idea is imbued with his poem “The Eagle”, 1832; “The Dream”, 1834; historical drama “Dmitry Pretender”, 1833. The main theoretical provisions of Slavophilism were set out in the article “On the Old and the New” (1839). During these years he is intensively engaged in self-education, expanding the range of his scientific interests. In 1838, he began to work on his main historical and philosophical work “A Note on World History.”
In 1850, special attention is given to religious issues, the history of Russian Orthodoxy, in which he sees the source of the development of the national Russian spirit, the basis of popular morality. During these years, publishes the article “On the fragments found in the papers Kireevskii” (1857), “On the modern influences in Philosophy” (1859), etc. In 1854, on the list of print his poem “Russia” with the accusatory lines:.
In courts black
untruths black And the yoke of bondage slavery…
Like other Slavophiles, Khomiakov idealized Orthodoxy, the patriarchal mouth of Russian life, but at the same time he was a staunch opponent of serfdom, justifying this position with the Gospel teaching. Khomyakov’s lyrics of these years reflected the rejection by the Slavophiles of the existing system for immorality and lack of spirituality. Khomyakov lived for 56 years. He died on September 23 (October 5, 2001) in the village of Ivanovo, Lipetsk province. He was buried in Moscow.
A short biography from the book: Russian writers and poets. A short biographical dictionary. Moscow, 2000.