(1812 – 1870)
Herzen Alexander Ivanovich (pseudonym Iskander) (1812 – 1870). Russian politician, writer, philosopher, publicist. Born April 6 (in the old style – March 25), 1812 in Moscow. The illegitimate son of the noble Russian master IA Yakovlev and the German woman Louise Haag, whom Yakovlev, returning after a long journey through Europe, took with him to Moscow. To the child Yakovlev gave the name Herzen (from the German word “Herz” – the heart). The first years of the boy were depressed and lonely. He learned the German language from his mother, in conversations with his father and tutors – French. Yakovlev had a rich library consisting almost entirely of the writings of French writers of the eighteenth century, and in it the boy rummaged quite freely. The events of December 14, 1825 determined the direction of the aspirations and sympathies of Herzen. In 1833, Herzen graduated from the university with a degree of candidate and a silver medal. Even at university he got acquainted with the teachings of the Saint-Simonists. A year after the end of the course, Herzen and his friend Ogarev were arrested. The reason for the arrest was the very fact of the existence in Moscow of “non-servicemen”, always talking about something disturbing, agitated and boiling young people, and the occasion – a student’s party, which contained a “daring blame” song, and the bust of Emperor Nicholas Pavlovich.
Among the works are articles, novels, novels: “Notes of a Young Man” (autobiographical novel), “Moscow and St. Petersburg” (1842, a pamphlet disagreed in the lists, published in 1857), “Dilettantism in Science” (1843), “Letters on study of nature “(1845 – 1846),” Who is to blame? ” (1841 – 1846, novel), “Doctor Krupov” (1847, the story), “The Magpie” (1848, the story), “Duty first” (1851, novel), “Damaged” (1851, novel) William Penn “(drama),” Past and Thoughts “(1852 – 1868, autobiographical novel),” Boredom for the sake of “(1868 – 1869, essay),” Doctor, dying and dead “(1869, novel),” To the old comrade “(1869, letters are the last work).