(1801 – 1872)
Dal Vladimir Ivanovich (1801 – 1872), prose writer, poet, playwright, lexicographer. Born November 10 (22 N. s.) In Lugani in the family of a doctor.
I got an excellent home education. At the age of 13, he entered the St. Petersburg Marine Corps, from whose studies, in his words, “there were only rods left in my memory.” In 1819 he was promoted to midshipman, entered the service in the fleet in Nikolaev. In the same year begins to collect words, expressions, riddles that surprised him with something (meaning, unusual meaning, unfamiliar content). For five and a half years, Dahl serves in Nikolayev, at the same time he is engaged in literary creation: he writes poetry, one-act comedies. Having received the promotion, he was transferred to the Baltic, where he served for a year and a half in Kronstadt. In 1826 he resigned, deciding to change his profession, and entered the Medical Faculty of the University of Dorpat. This period of his life calls “a time of delight.” In the house of professor of surgery A. Moyer, there are often V. Zhukovsky, the sons of N. Karamzin,
Studying at the university was interrupted by the Russian-Turkish war. Dal pre-term defends the thesis and goes to the front, where he operates the wounded, fights against cholera and plague. Continues his collecting work. his records take up so much space that they need to use a camel for their transportation.
Since 1832 Dahl has been working in St. Petersburg in a military surgical hospital, gaining fame as a surgeon-oculist. However, conflicts with his superiors force him to abandon medicine. He serves as an official for special assignments to the military governor of the Orenburg region, V. Perovsky, a well-known art connoisseur who knew Pushkin closely, respecting Dal’s literary pursuits. Seven years he accompanied the governor in his travels around the Urals, continuing to collect folklore material. In addition, Dal organizes a zoological museum, collects collections of local flora and fauna, publishes articles on medicine. In 1838 he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences for the separation of natural sciences.
In the 1840s Dal wrote stories and stories, prints them in various publications; publishes articles about popular beliefs. In these same years, Dahl’s articles on language appear.
In 1853 he presented to the Academy of Sciences his collection of Proverbs of the Russian People, which included more than 30,000 proverbs, sayings, riddles, and jokes.
After retiring, in 1859 he settled in Moscow, completely giving himself up to the main cause of his life – “Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language”, for which the Academy of Sciences was awarded the Lomonosov Prize.
In the last years of his life Dahl reissues his works of art, an eight-volume collection of his works is published. Until the last minute, Dahl continued to work on the dictionary, preparing the second edition. September 22 (October 4, current), in 1872 in Moscow, Dahl died.