(1795 – 1829)
Gribodedov Alexander Sergeevich (04.01.1795, according to other sources 1790, Moscow – 30.01.1829, Tehran), playwright, poet, diplomat.
He was born into a noble family. He spent his childhood in Moscow and the estate of his uncle (by his mother) AF Griboyedov-Khmelit of Smolensk Province. He received a home education under the guidance of IB Petrosilius, an encyclopaedic scientist who later served as assistant librarian at Moscow University. In 1803 Griboyedov studied at the Noble Boarding School at the Moscow University (Moscow Gazette, 1803. December 26, p. 1687). January 30, 1806 enlisted in the students of Moscow University. According to the memoirs of his university friend V. I. Lykoshin, Griboedov attended lectures accompanied by his tutor and “in childishness… studied mediocre”, however, after one and a half years of studying, he passed the exam for the degree of candidate of literature awarded to him at the solemn university Act of June 30, 1808 (Moscow Gazette, 1808, 4th of July. C.1390; publication of a copy of the candidate’s diploma Griboyedov, see: Russian Review, 1899, No. 3. P.383) During his studies Griboyedov attended literary meetings of noblemen-students of Moscow University in the house of Prince. I. D. Scherbatova, which included his cousins P. Ya. And M. Ya. Chaadayev, their teacher, the talented poet ZA A. Burinsky, the countryman of Griboyedov in the Smolensk region ID Yakushkin, and also, probably, N. I. Turgenev, DA Obleukhov and others. Together with the brothers Chaadaev, Yakushkin and Shcherbatov, Griboyedov studies privately with the famous philosopher and expert in medicine, Professor IJ Bule, whom he later calls his main university instructor. Lectures Bule awaken in a young man noted later by his friends interest in Russian history, form the “taste and opinion” in the literature. University disputes of those years become the subject for the first application of satirical talent to Griboyedov. The rivalry between German and Russian professors, and in particular the struggle between IT Bule and MT Kachenovsky, who claimed to occupy the first university department, was reflected in the plot of Griboyedov’s comedy “Dmitry Dryanska” (circa 1810, not preserved). Studying with Boole encouraged Griboyedov to continue his university studies. In 1810/11, as an auditor, and from 1811/12 again as a student of his own, Griboyedov (along
with the new tutor BIIon) listens to lectures of professors of the ethical-political department – Reinhard, Stelzer, Schlozer and Sandunov, takes lessons of the Latin language from VV Schneider, preparing for the tests for the degree of doctor of rights. Among his university acquaintances of this time – AN Panin, MN Muravyov.
In Moscow, Griboyedov finds the beginning of the Patriotic War, and, like many young people of his generation, he enters the military service, enrolling in the Moscow Hussar Regiment, which was created for the donations of Count Saltykov. In July 1812 the last meetings of Griboedov with Bule occur, which introduces his pupil to the Prussian minister in exile, Baron Stein, who was in Moscow in the retinue of Alexander I. In the fighting of 1812-13. Griboyedov did not participate.
After retiring in March 1816, he made another attempt to return to the academic career, intending to go to the University of Dorpat, but in the end, in June 1817 (almost simultaneously with AS Pushkin and VK Kuchelbecker) arrives to serve in the Foreign Affairs Board.
In St. Petersburg, Griboyedov draws closer to the secular milieu of writers, actors and theatergoers. As a result of participating in the tragic duel, dramatically changing his life, in August 1818, Griboyedov – secretary of the Russian diplomatic mission in Persia. In Tabriz, in 1820, the comedy “Woe from Wit” (completed in 1824) is born, which reflected, among other things, Griboyedov’s many impressions of university life in pre-fire Moscow. (University lecturer of English and literature, teacher and friend Griboyedov F. Ya Evans claimed later that he was personally acquainted with all the characters of “Woe from Wit” – RV., 1887. No. 10. P.699) From 1822 to 1826 Griboyedov serves in the Caucasus at the headquarters of AP Ermolov, from January to June 1826, he is under arrest in the case of the Decembrists. I received a certificate of acquittal, and for the audience of Nicholas I in Elagin his palace was brought in his own carriage by MN Muraviev, “a university friend who had not seen him for 16 years.” Since 1827, under the new governor of the Caucasus, IF Paskevich has been in charge of diplomatic relations with Turkey and Persia. After the conclusion of the Turkmanchai Peace (1828), in which Griboyedov took an active part and whose text was brought to Petersburg, he was appointed “plenipotentiary minister” to Persia to ensure the fulfillment of the terms of the treaty.
In Tiflis in August 1828, Mr.. married NA Chavchavadze, the daughter of a Georgian poet and public figure. January 30, 1829, died at the hands of Muslim fanatics who captured the Russian mission in Tehran. He was buried in Tiflis in the monastery of St. David. The literary heritage of Griboyedov, including poems, plays, travel notes and other prosaic passages, has more than 30 works, but a large number of his designs remained unrealized and, together with the death of his papers, lost to posterity.