(1799 – 1837)
(1799-1837), Russian poet, the founder of the new Russian literature, the creator of the modern Russian literary language. In youthful verses the poet is a lyceum brotherhood, “a fan of friendly freedom, fun, grace and intelligence”, in early poems the singer of bright and free passions: “Ruslan and Lyudmila” (1820), romantic “southern” poems “Caucasian Prisoner” (1820-21 ), “Bakhchisarai Fountain” (1821-23), etc. The freedom-loving and antitiranic motifs of the early lyrics, the independence of personal behavior served as the reason for the links: southern (1820-24, Ekaterinoslav, Caucasus, Crimea, Chisinau, Odessa) and in the village. Mikhailovsky (1824-26). Aesthetic assimilation of the contexts of Russian life (intellectual, socio-historical, everyday) was combined in Pushkin with a lively perception of diverse European influences, the gift of penetration into other cultures and eras. The variety of developed genres and styles (including the “unadorned” prose of “The Belkin’s Tales”, 1830, the novel “The Queen of Spades”, 1833, and other works anticipating the development of realistic writing), lightness, elegance and precision of verse, relief and strength characters (in large forms), “enlightened humanism,” the universality of poetic thinking and Pushkin’s personality predetermined his paramount importance in Russian literature: Pushkin raised it to the level of the world. The novel in verse “Eugene Onegin” (1823-31) recreates the way of life and spiritual composition of the “typical” hero overcoming Byronism and the evolution of the author close to him, the way of the capital and provincial nobility; in the novel and in many other works Pushkin addresses the problems of individualism, the boundaries of freedom, set in the “Gypsies” (1824). They were first identified (in poems, drama, prose), many leading problems of nineteenth-century Russian literature, often in their tragic confrontation and insolubility, the people and power, the state and personality, the role of the individual and the people in history: the tragedy Boris Godunov 1824-25, published in 1831), the poem “Poltava” (1828), “The Bronze Horseman” (1833, published in 1837), the novel “The Captain’s Daughter” (1836). In the philosophical lyrics of the 1930s, the “little
tragedies” created in 1830 (Mozart and Salieri, The Stone Guest, published in 1839, The Miserly Knight, published in 1836, and others), permanent for Pushkin’s poetry themes “
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PUSHKIN Alexander Sergeevich [May 26 (June 6) 1799, Moscow January 29 (February 10) 1837, St. Petersburg; buried in Svyatogorsk monastery, now Pskov region], Russian poet.
Family, literature, brotherhood
Since childhood, for Pushkin significant belonged to the glorious in the history of the family (the legendary ancestor of Radsha the associate of Alexander Nevsky, the great-grandfather of the mother AP Gannibal, the “arap of Peter the Great”) and the “home” attitude to literature (among visitors the parents’ house NM Karamzin, uncle VL Pushkin gifted poet). Home education was reduced to a brilliant mastery of the French language; taste for the native language, folklore and history came from the grandmother of the mother, MA Hannibal, nee Pushkina.
In August 1811 Pushkin enlisted in the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum, a new privileged educational institution, which is under the patronage of the emperor. The strongest impression of the Lyceum years was the Patriotic War of 1812. The Lyceum, without giving a systematic education, taught comradeship and remained a symbol of brotherhood for Pushkin (close friends are the novice poets AA Delvig and VK Kiichelbecker, the future Decembrist II Pushchin).
Already the first surviving poems (1813, the first publication “To a Friend of the Poet,” Journal of the Herald of Europe, 1814, No. 13) testify to Pushkin’s skill. He focuses mainly on French light poetry, KN Batyushkov and VA Zhukovsky, but also takes into account other samples (at the exam in January 1815, GR Derzhavin’s enthusiasm was called “Memoirs in Tsarskoe Selo”, synthesizing the manners of Derzhavin and Batiushkov); watches over the literary struggle of the Shishkovites and Karamzinists, feeling a fighter of the new school, whose leaders pay attention to the poet-nephew (in 1815 Pushkin in the Lyceum visited Batiushkov and Zhukovsky, in 1816 Karamzin and PA Vyazemsky, Pushkin communicates with Karamzin, who settled in the summer of 1816 in Tsarskoe Selo, his acquaintance with Zhukovsky and Vyazemsky grows into friendship).
The Petersburg period (the summer of 1817 in the spring of 1820) passes roughly: formally counting on the College of Foreign Affairs, Pushkin is not burdened with service, preferring theater, friendly feasts, social life, short “novels” and frequent duels, harsh poems, wit and epigrams. On the conviction shared by both Karamzin and the people of the Decembrist warehouse, Pushkin is windy, frivolous and hardly worthy of his talent. At the same time, Pushkin’s friendship with P. Ya. Chaadayev continues, he communicates with the convinced opponent of serfdom NI Turgenev (the influence of his views is felt in the poem “The Village”, 1819), writes poetry in a high civic tradition (“Liberty” 1818), refuses (not without the influence of PA Katenin) from reckless Karamzinism and pays tribute to the searches of archaic poets; Through Delvig acquainted with EA Baratynsky and PA Pletnev. Pushkin is recognized as a recognized leader by young literature. The result of these years was the poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila” (published in a separate edition in early August 1820), which was the fulfillment of the poetic order of the era, over which Zhukovsky and Batiushkov fought in vain. In the poem, the historical heroics, elegiac melancholy, frivolity, national coloring, fantasy and humor are combined at ease; “trifle” Karamzinists takes on the scale of the epic, and the “proteic” gift allows you to lead the story with an unthinkable stylistic freedom. Zhukovsky immediately after reading the poem recognizes Pushkin as the “winner-pupil”, and the reproaches that followed later do not abolish the great success. Ruslan and Lyudmila “(published in a separate edition in early August 1820), which was the fulfillment of the poetic order of the epoch over which Zhukovsky and Batiushkov fought in vain: the poem unites historical heroics, elegiac melancholy, frivolity, national coloring, fantasy and humor,” trifle ” Karamzinists acquire the scale of the epic, and the “proteic” gift allows the story to be conducted with an unthinkable stylistic freedom. “Zhukovsky immediately recognizes in Pushkin the” winner-student “, and the reproaches that later sounded not It is a great success. Ruslan and Lyudmila “(published in a separate edition in early August 1820), which was the fulfillment of the poetic order of the epoch over which Zhukovsky and Batiushkov fought in vain: the poem unites historical heroics, elegiac melancholy, frivolity, national coloring, fantasy and humor,” trifle ” Karamzinists acquire the scale of the epic, and the “proteic” gift allows the story to be conducted with an unthinkable stylistic freedom. “Zhukovsky immediately recognizes Pushkin’s” winner-student “in Pushkin’s poem, and later reproaches are not about It is a great success. frivolity, national color, fantasy and humor; “trifle” Karamzinists takes on the scale of the epic, and the “proteic” gift allows you to lead the story with an unthinkable stylistic freedom. Zhukovsky immediately after reading the poem recognizes Pushkin as the “winner-pupil”, and the reproaches that followed later do not abolish the great success. frivolity, national color, fantasy and humor; “trifle” Karamzinists takes on the scale of the epic, and the “proteic” gift allows you to lead the story with an unthinkable stylistic freedom. Zhukovsky immediately after reading the poem recognizes Pushkin as the “winner-pupil”, and the reproaches that followed later do not abolish the great success.
The end of the work on “Ruslan and Lyudmila” coincided with the Emperor’s sharp discontent with the behavior and outrageous verses of Pushkin: it was about Siberia or repentance at the Solovki Monastery. Pushkin was summoned to the military governor of Petersburg, Count MA Miloradovich, and, confessing that in time he had destroyed the seditious verses, he filled an entire notebook (not found). Touched by a knightly gesture, Miloradovich promised royal forgiveness; Appeared to Alexander I, apparently, and Karamzin, usually not motivated to petitions. Pushkin was seconded to the disposal of Lieutenant-General IN Inzov, the governor of Bessarabia.
Having met in Ekaterinoslav with the new chief and having made with his permission a trip across the Caucasus and the Crimea, Pushkin arrives in Chisinau (September 1820). To talk about European revolutions and the Greek insurrection, the Bessarabian “mixture of clothes and persons, tribes, dialects, states,” contacts with members of secret societies (MF Orlov, VF Rayevsky, PI Pestel, etc.) contributed to as the growth of political radicalism (statements recorded by contemporaries, before the expulsion Pushkin promised Karamzin not to write “against the government” for two years and kept his word), and the creative enthusiasm of J. Byron. Poetization of individualism, which is difficult to relate to love of freedom, mighty passion or frustration, attention to exotic coloring (nature, alien customs and customs), increased suggestibility in the new elegies (“
Taking up the vacancy of “the first romantic poet,” Pushkin in the Chisinau-Odessa period (since July 1823 he serves under the Novorossiysk governor-general Count MS Vorontsov) is far from subordinating Byron’s aesthetics. He works in different genre and stylistic traditions (reminiscent of the Voltaire and Guy poem “Gavriiliada”, 1821, “high” friendly message “Chaadaeva”, 1821, an anthological poem “Muse”, 1821; “Song of the Wise Oleg”, 1821, motif of the inspiration of free creativity in the spirit of Goethe and Schiller, etc.). In Chisinau, “Eugene Onegin” began a “novel in verse”, designed for long years of writing, a free and not afraid of contradictions story not only about contemporary heroes, but also about the spiritual and intellectual evolution of the author.
The complexities of the personal plan (intricate relations with the Countess EK Vorontsova and AN Raevsky), conflicts with Vorontsov, the gloominess of European political prospects (the defeat of revolutions) and reaction in Russia, the study of “pure apheism” led Pushkin to the crisis of 1823-24 ; motives of frustration, close to despair, encompass not only the sphere of politics (Liberty the Sower of the Desert…), but receives a metaphysical justification (The Demon, both 1823). At the end of July 1824, Vorontsov’s dissatisfaction with the government, which became familiar with Pushkin’s interest in atheism, led to his expulsion from service and exile to the Mikhailovskoye estate of the Pskov gubernia.
In the autumn of 1824, a serious quarrel with his father took place, to which the poet was entrusted. Spiritual support Pushkin receives from the owner of the neighboring estate Trigorskoye PA Osipova, her family and her nanny Arina Rodionovna Yakovleva. In Pushkin, Mikhailovsky intensively works: farewell to romanticism occurs in the poems “To the Sea” and “The Talk of the Book Seller with the Poet”, the poem “The Gypsies” (all 1824); the 3rd was completed, the fourth was written and the 5th chapter of “Eugene Onegin” was started; The main thing is the tragedy “Boris Godunov” (completed in November 1825), based on the study of the chronicles, “The History of the Russian State” by Karamzin and the dramatic principles of Shakespeare. Bowing to reconciliation with reality, hoping for monarchy forgiveness, Pushkin at the same time was making plans to flee abroad. Attention to history and folklore (“The Groom”, 1825, “Songs about Stenka Razin”, 1826), distant cultures (“Imitations of the Koran”, 1824), a new discovery of the values of love [“K ***” (“I remember a wonderful moment… “), 1825], friendship (” October 19 “, 1825), simple and sad existence (” Winter Evening, “1825), conviction in the unity of poetry and freedom, in the prophetic mission of the poet (” Andrew Chenier “, 1825) , “The Prophet”, 1826), sober skepticism in assessing the present, refusal to politicize poetry and self-will in politics (correspondence with KF Ryleev and AA Bestuzhev) allowed Pushkin to withstand the link, it the December disaster.
In the hope of glory and good
In the turmoil of the interregnum, Pushkin intended to illegally arrive in St. Petersburg, but at the last moment changed his plans. December 13-14, 1825 written “Count Nulin,” an ironic poem on everyday material, dedicated, according to the “strange rapprochement”, to the problems of historical accident. The news of the insurrection, arrests and investigation aroused Pushkin’s complex feelings: comradely compassion for the Decembrists was combined with recognition of the current situation, hopes of liberation (Pushkin was not a member of secret societies and did not consider himself responsible for their activities) alternated with apprehension (his “outrageous” verses knew all the competent Russia and they were naturally built into the “Decembrist” context).
September 8, 1826 Pushkin was brought to Moscow for an audience with Nicholas I, the result of which was mutual recognition; The emperor took upon himself the censorship of Pushkin’s works. Pushkin, paying tribute to the transformation of Nicholas (“Stanza”, 1826), remained faithful to friends (“In the depths of the Siberian ore…”, 1827). It was not double-dealing, but the desire to take a state position: a free trusting relationship with the tsar gave the opportunity to do good, in particular, to fight for the amnesty of the Decembrists. Statehood (inseparable from the loyalty of noble honor) presupposed an eye for the Derzhavin tradition (“Friends”, “Mordvinov”, both 1827); Pushkin points to humanity as an inalienable property of an ideal monarch (this line leads from the “Stanzas” and “Friends” to “
Freely occupied with the “state” position, Pushkin did not want to put his gift on any service, which led to an outwardly paradoxical neighborhood of civil verses and defending the absolute freedom of creativity (Poet and the crowd, 1828; Poet, 1830).
Justification of reality did not guarantee against external conflicts. Relations with the emperor (the usual mediator was the chief of the secret police, Count A. Kh. Benkendorf) were far from the intended ideal model (Boris Godunov was not given the highest approval, and a note on the popular education was a polite reprimand.) The difficulties were also in the “republic of literature”: Pushkin and his longtime allies (Vyazemsky, Delvig) did not fully agree with Moscow’s riches, relations with NA Polev and NI Nadezhdin varied from alienated to hostile; in 1829-30, the ardent opponent of Pushkin and his circle became the editor of the popular newspaper Severnaya Bchela, FV Bulgarin, known for his cooperation with the secret police, combining hostility to the aristocracy, the epigone enlightenment, monstrous rudeness and the ability to intelligibly interpret with the public. The desire for a firm social status turned out to be difficult to realize from here “hunting for a change of places” (plans for traveling abroad, a trip in 1829 to the theater of war, described in the Journey to Arzrum, 1835); hence the motives of loneliness, the meaninglessness of existence, the insecurity of man in the face of “indifferent nature”, destiny, despotism (“The gift is vain, the gift is random,” Anchar, both 1828; “Road complaints”, “I walk along the streets of noisy,” both 1829); from here motives of calculation with the past and hopes for a saving new love (“Memories”, “Presentiment,” both 1828; “In the hills of Georgia lies the night haze,” “There lived a poor knight in the world,” “I loved you:
In 1830, Pushkin, who had long dreamed of getting married and “his own house,” was seeking the hand of N. N. Goncharova, a young Moscow beauty, without a dowry. Having gone to the possession of the estate, donated by the father to the wedding, he because of the cholera quarantine was for three months imprisoned in the village of Boldino (Nizhny Novgorod province). “Boldin Autumn” was opened by the poems “Demons” and “Elegy” by the horror of the lost and the hope for the future, difficult but giving the joys of creativity and love. Three months were given to the summing-up of the results of youth (Pushkin considered it to be a thirtieth anniversary) and the search for new ways. The “Eugene Onegin” was completed, the “abyss” of poems and articles, “The Belkin’s Tales” were written, opening poetry and the fundamental complexity of the “ordinary” life, “Little Tragedies,” “
The self-reliance of man
The first summer after the wedding (February 18, 1831) Pushkin spend in Tsarskoye Selo. European revolutions, the Polish uprising and bloody cholera riots inside the country are the subject of his constant reflections, reflected in the epistolary and caused the emergence of imperial poems in the spirit of “Slanderers of Russia” and “Borodino anniversary.” Communication with Zhukovsky and N. Gogol, engaged “Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka”, mutually stimulated the appeal to folklore (“The Tale of Tsar Saltan…”). The question of complex, fraught with catastrophe relations between the government, the nobility and the people becomes for Pushkin the most important (Dubrovsky, 1832-33, Pugachev’s History, 1833, The Captain’s Daughter, 1836). Complication of Peter I and his heritage becomes more complicated (since 1832 archival searches for “The History of Peter” ); “Objectivism” is replaced by a tragic perception of history (“The Bronze Horseman”); “mercy”, inseparable from human understanding and rooted in religious feeling, is thought of above objective, but limited “justice” (Angelo, 1833, Captain’s Daughter, Peter the Great’s Feast, 1835). Most of the remaining unrealized plans, plans, passages are usually “epic” in form (appealing to very different epochs on the basis of different historical, documentary and literary sources) and “lyrical” in fact. In the actual lyrics with rare and significant exceptions (“The more often the lyceum celebrates”, 1831, “Autumn”, “Do not let me, God, go crazy,” both 1833, “Cloud”, “General”, “… Again I visited”,
Family life pleased (had four children), but was complicated by relations with the court and secular society (at the end of 1833 Pushkin was granted the court rank of the junker chamber, filed in the summer of 1834 petition for resignation was taken back, because it threatened excommunication from state archives). St. Petersburg’s life was introduced into expenses, not redeemed by high fees for rare publications. The magazine Sovremennik (1836, four volumes, among the authors Zhukovsky, Gogol, FI Tyutchev), oriented toward the cultural elite, as well as Pugachev’s History, was not popular with the public. Spiritual independence of Pushkin, his cultural and state strategy, the establishment of special relations with the sovereign, personal honor and contempt for the bureaucratic-aristocratic rabble determined the enmity with the “pig Petersburg” (from servile writers and secular messengers to the Minister of Education S. Uvarov). Having received on November 4, 1836 an anonymous libel, Pushkin sends a challenge to J. Dantes, publicly courting the poet’s wife. The duel was upset, Dantes forced to marry EN Goncharova, Pushkin’s sister-in-law, but his behavior after the wedding and the secular reaction to “history” showed that the crisis was not resolved. On January 25, 1837 Pushkin sends a letter to the adoptive father of Dantes, the Dutch envoy L. Gekkern, a letter whose answer could only be a challenge to a duel. On January 27 at about 5 pm Pushkin was mortally wounded. After two incomplete days of physical torment, blessed relatives, saying goodbye to friends, having received from the emperor a promise to take his wife and children “in his care” (was executed), confessed and communicated, Pushkin died.
News of the duel and the death of Pushkin caused great excitement in St. Petersburg (see “Death of the poet” M. Yu. Lermontov, later on Pushkin’s death Zhukovsky, Tyutchev, and A. Koltsov responded); from his coffin visited (according to various sources) from 10 to 50 thousand people.