Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin is the founder of Russian classical literature, who developed the vast majority of its genres, created a standard literary language, opened the variety of themes, human characters, artistic styles, and, ultimately, raised Russian elegant literature to the world level. Pushkin’s creative work, which captures both his multi-faceted personality and national spirit, is harmonious and natural.
The life of Alexander Pushkin in dates and facts
June 6, 1799 – was born in Moscow in the family of a retired major belonging to an old noble family, and the granddaughter of the legendary “arap” Hannibal, who was the favorite of Peter I.
1811 – after the traditional home education for the noble families, the future poet entered the newly opened Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, where his extraordinary literary gift was manifested. In the Lyceum years Pushkin established close contacts with the famous writers of his time – N. M. Karamzin, N. I. Turgenev, P. A. Vyazemsky, etc., and also became a correspondence member of the literary society “Arzamas”.
1814 – in the magazine “Herald of Europe” appeared his first publication – a poem “To a friend poet”.
In 1817, at the end of the Lyceum, the poet moved to Petersburg, where he entered an official position at the College of Foreign Affairs. Such a service was usually a formality for young noblemen, including for Pushkin, who, without burdening himself with bureaucratic duties, engaged in creativity and led a stormy social life.
From the autumn of 1819 to the summer of 1820 – he was a member of the St. Petersburg literary society “The Green Lamp”.
1820 – the poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila” was published, which brought the young author all-Russian fame. In the same year Pushkin, who aroused his dissatisfaction with Tsar Alexander I, with his freedom-loving poems and impudent judgments, was expelled from the capital to the south. The first year of exile he spent in Chisinau under the supervision of General I. N. Inzov, the next three years – in Odessa, where he was under the supervision of Governor-General M. S. Vorontsov, with whom he had a conflict. Impressions of the period of the southern exile are reflected in numerous poems and the cycle of “southern poems”, which include, among others, “The Prisoner of the Caucasus”,
“Robber Brothers”, “Bakhchisarai Fountain”, “Gypsies”.
1823 – began work on a novel in the poems “Eugene Onegin.”
In 1824, to continue serving his exile, the poet was sent to the Mikhailovskoye family estate. For two years spent there, Pushkin created about 100 works, including the four chapters of “Eugene Onegin” and the tragedy “Boris Godunov” – the debut in his dramaturgy.
In 1827, Pushkin, to whom Tsar Nicholas I returned freedom, again moved to live in St. Petersburg.
1829 – the poem “Poltava” was finished.
In the autumn of 1830 the poet, forced to stay for three months in his father’s estate Boldino, experienced an extraordinary creative productivity, which was included in the history of Russian literature under the name “Boldin Autumn”. During this time, they created cycles “Little Tragedies”, “The Tale of Belkin”, the poem “The House in Kolomna”, “The Tale of the Priest and His Worker Balda” and a number of famous poems. In addition, in Boldino was almost completely completed, “Eugene Onegin.”
February 18, 1831 – Pushkin’s wedding with Natalia Goncharova was held.
In 1834, the poet was granted a humiliating for his age and position as a chamber-junker, which caused his indignation.
1836 – Pushkin began publishing the magazine “Contemporary”, which opened a new page in Russian cultural life, but never collected the necessary number of subscribers.
In the 1830s, along with numerous poems were written the poem “The Bronze Horseman”, as well as prose works “The Queen of Spades”, “Dubrovsky”, “The Captain’s Daughter”.
January 27, 1837 – there was a duel between the poet, who suffered from cruel persecution, and George Charles Dantes, demonstratively caring for his wife.
January 29, 1837 – died of a fatal wound, received in a duel.